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St. Michael's College Courses
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Michael O Connor

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• Monastic movements shaped modern papacy October 17 • Distinguish person from office and transition from secular papal monarchies to spiritual authorities • Through legal inheritance the pope holds spiritual authority • When an immoral priest performs baptism, its still legit • Papal sins • 1054, pope innocents torture practices • Although recognized sins it was forgiven for the greater good, so they are not corrupt • Issue: pope boniface VIII unam sanctum • Two swords. One spiritual sword wielded by the church and one temporal sword wielded by the kings for the church • Boniface exiled • Avignon papacy -> moved papacy from Rome to France • The great papal schism • Two popes came into power: pope urban VI in Rome and pope clement VII in France • To fix this problem, people elect new pope but this resulted in three popes • This came to a stop at the council of Constance. Kings and lay people decided a course of action October 22 • Mystery • Look to the incarnation and the trinity, sacrament from Justin martyr and Augustine • Anselm of Canterbury -> one must have faith to seek understanding • One can reason properly if they have faith • Fourth Lateran council 1215 Transubstantiation term used to denote real presence of Jesus in the Eucharist • • Franciscan and Dominican orders emerged 1210-1215 • Differed from Benedictines monastery -> university • Thomas Aquinas summa theologiae Incarnation and Transubstantiation • October 24 • Thomas Aquinas summa theologiae • He was a Dominican friar and worked at the university of Paris • Understand spiritual and secular parts of life • He rejected three theologies • 1. Philosophism: which means that through Aristotle's philosophy you can know the truth • 2. Traditionalism: concerned with faith • 3. Double truth: faith and reason are not related • Faith and reason are related and can be complementary • Stuff: world is good because it is created by god • Human body is good regardless of the fall of man • Although bread and wine are material they change through Transubstantiation October 29 • Martin Luther and the Protestant reformation • Catholic believed in three relationships • 1. Faith: living in fear of god • 2. Hope: respect a reward in the end 3. Love: do good because you love god • • Martin Luther: says you can only be saved by with alone. God provides a ladder but it is your choice if you want to climb it or not • Corruption in clergy -> indulgences. People pay church when they have sinned • Didn't want to break off from Catholicism but wanted to reform the Catholic Church • Three ways to god • 1. By scripture 2. Person justified by faith in god 3. Person saved through grace alone • Only three sacraments: Eucharist, baptism and penance • Martin Luther tried at the diet of worms October 31 Problems of the Protestant reformation • • 1. European continent deeply separated. The Augsburg treaty of 1555 let the ruler of the territory decide the religion • Council of Trent = counter reformation 1545-1563 • 1. Clarity 2. Identity 3. Reform • Missal of 1570 • Promoted uniformity in the Catholic Church • 2. Two outcomes: 1. Fragmentation and reinvigoration of the church November 5 • Enlightenment revolution and ultramontane solutions • After enlightenment reason and autonomy dominated over divine authority • French Revolution 1789 • 1. Civil constitution of clergy. 1790 clergy employed to the state like civil servants • 2. Re
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