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SEP 12-14 = Jesus, the Kingdom of God and the Church
o Paul of Tarsus (acts of the apostles; his journey)
Saul of Tarsus called Paul called himself the apostle of the gentiles
he was converted to the Jesus movement
this Judaism movement soon became a gentile movement
he was a Pharisee
concerned with the standards to jewish community
he saw the “jesus movnt” as a threat and a messianic jewish cult that could divide Judaism’ he tries to remove
it all together
on his way to Damascus, he experiences a vision of persecution from Jesus
god was asking him “saul y do u persecute me” ?
paul is then transformed by this vision
still on his way to Damascus, instead of persecuting the jesus mvnt he goes and learns about Jesus thru them
and asks them questions
he becomes a convicted Christian and sees jesus death as a divine intervention
he then understood his purpose and his calling which was to tell/spread the good news to others
he wud tell other jews. He used jewish scripture like book of isiah to prove that jesus was messiah to jews
but they didn’t believe him
Paul thru his missions, talks to others about Jesus
he does this well because he tells others about the problems of society
he says its not necessary to keep the jewish practice of being kosher, purity, circumcision etc he sees Jesus’
msg much greater
he saw jesus as the liberator and his death left everyone in freedom
circumcision was replaced by baptism
paul died in rome as part of niro persecution of Christians
said to have travelled with peter
Hellenziation= to speak greek; Alexander the great introduced this everywhere he went
The council of Jerusalem ( c. 48 CE)
o compromise was made
partial yes to the food laws and sabatth
you don’t have to be circumsized
Yes to moral codes
Sadducees=most iristiac, from the presitly line, believe in Hellenism, believed in temple is jesus times, had a place
in jewish courts, they would keep a set of laws to look after their own jewish ppl, they taught temple cult was
fundamental to survival of Israel, rituals/sacrifices were need to maintain yawehs figure; they don’t accept special
treatments of pharsses, they don’t believe in reseureciton or heaven or life after death, there sad becuz there
temple is destroyed
1st group to arise
upper stratum of jewish society
lived in Jerusalem and was in charge of the temple and its acitivies
comprised of priestly fams
economic class upper in rank
rep the political leadership and social/religious leadership
they control events around the temple
they take bible literally

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open to hellenization
they rejected angels, apocalyptic ideas and let the greek language in their community
Pharisees; are (fair u c ) becuz they develop non biblical tratidions on how to live the law; issue of pharsiees they
are very rigid and liberal; theyre building on the law,trying to make jewish religion being easily practiced, they try to
create followers that are more ritually pure and better in the eyes of yaweh, they believe in life after death, theyre
intents are good they were respected by other jews,
2nd group to arise
represented negatively in Christian scripture
middle class in society
rabbinical Judaism developed from them
scholars, scribes, and considered the pure ones
they were known for their piety
focus was on preserving Hebrew piety through careful observation of religious laws and traditions
exegesisinterpretation of the Hebrew text
they were concern with how the torah was told and how it was interpreted
they thought the world was ending too and encouraged ppl to prepare for it
4th group to arise
small cloistered group that produced the vast library
found the dead sea scrolls
separated itself from other groups
lived a life of celibacy
rejected animal sacrifice and avoided meat and wine
followed a solar calendar/diff from lunar calender
devoted to fasting and praying and purity practices
had a strong conviction that the end of the world was near and that jews needed to prepare themselves for it
(apocalypticism= end of the world for jews; for Christians its rapture)
Ignatius of Antioch
talks about a leadership as one person (bishop) surround by others (presbyters/priests) which they are surround by
others (deacons/helpers)
one person is in charge of a community which would be the bishop
In the institutional hierarchy
1. Bishops: “spirit of high priesthood”
2. Presbyter/priests: “spirit of seniority”
3. Deacons : service
4. Confessors: not someone who receives the faith but b/c they stand up for there faith they’ve been hurt
SEP 19-21 Giving Shape to catholic Identity and Life
they want roman to succeed
begins as a defener of Christian faith but then leaves and disagrees with Christianity in repentance
believed that once u were baptized your sins were washed away and u were now a temple of the holy spirit and it
was ur job to keep the temple pure and w.o sin and so he believed there was no need for repentance; he said god is
merciful and forgives and knows that humans are sinners
he believed that if u did sin after baptism u shud b out of Christianity
described martyrdom as the onlu sure road to salvation
he felt that philosophy was pointless fr Christians

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he wrote books against herectics and esp Gnostics
he was a great latin writer in Christianity
Gnostics is taken from the term gnosis which means knowledge its an esoteric religion
one ultimate being
they have negative view of material world and don’t believe jesus suffers on the cross and is just a spirit becuz if
he was a true god he wouldn’t be contaminated in the human form
he is a god that is superior universe and creator god (there’s more than one god)
there is the creator god but another god higher than him
creator god doesn’t know about the higher god
knowledge in this religion is gained thru a saviour figure
believed that god is spirit and good and that matter is evil so it is clear that god didn’t make the material world
gnostistic comes from the greek word gnoisi meaning knowledge
they believed that the goal of life was to gain knowledge about your true nature so u cud escape the material
world at death
gnostic beliefs created tension within Christianity becuz it tore apart their basic beliefs
they believed that Christ was no human but divine and so he cudnt have a material body and so he revealed to
humans the truth of god and human nature
tried to get rid of it and did then it came back up
separated the creator from the true god and jesus from the Christ who dwelt within him
this lead to the Filioque
Filioque; the clause of “from the father and the son” to the Nicene creed; this was under his reign
he modified the creed a little bit
added in 6th cent against arianism
it puts the son and the father at the same level
became a part of the creed in 1014
popular in west
homouisis=of the same substance= god and jesus
Irenaeus of Lyons; by the yr 200 throughout the most Mediterranean world we have a stable leadership. A canon of
scriptures, a stable rules of faith (baptism) and a universal presence throughout the empire is seen
monarchical episcopate and apostolic succession
SEP 26-28 Church, Empire and Christian Orthodoxy
Augustine of Hippo
grace is need to overcome temptation and break the bond of habit
he wrote in latin most other ppl wrote in greek
lived right between the council of nicea (325) and council of Chalcedon (451)
very important to catholic nd protestant churches
Agus was known for his theo of sacraments; baptism and Eucharist/ Lord’s prayer
Paul says in Corinthians “examine yourself” before taking the bread and eating it
some ppl say you need to be baptised b4 taking the Eucharist
Augus says sees the Incarnation of Christ as a sacramentum (latin word)
can either be merely symbolic or magical
in magical the words themselves create an automatic action
symbolic: visible sign or invisible grace
Augustine says: baptism is necessary for salvation but grace is more important and thats how we go to heaven
354-430 CE; born in north Africa
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