Vita (vitae) = sain’ts life
Passio (pl. Passions) – martyr’s life and death.
HAGIOGRAPHY- the study of saint’s lives formulaic and conventional.
-Saint is precociously holy, wise and devout child
-“puer senex”, wise child.
-Persecutor/tempter/seducer (figure of the heavenly bridegroom. Christ.
Saint’s virginity = fidelity to Christ.
Saint Perpetua (passion of).
Saint Chrysanthius & Daria
***EXAM: “Here! Here!” what the severed head of St. Edmund says and it is protected by wolf.
The Saint may be powerless here. The torment. Stylized to show Saint’s moral perfection.
Aelfric is the most important hagiographer. Approach of the millennium.
1000 c. In England = 2000 for us. (Y2K)
Plagues etc. Were seen as signs, an approach of the end, doomsday.
Andreas- St. Andrew-Aelfric.
Line 9 Onwards. Lots of alliteration.
Battle of Maldon
Chain of command.
Mary at the bottom of the cross. Human point of view. “Kissing a wound with bloody lips”
Christ in DR was seen as a triumphant Warrior King versus this vulnerable wounded human figure.
EFFICTIO: head to toe description. MANDEVILLE’S TRAVELS
• Mandeville’s Travels
Middle ages blossomed affective devotion. A person’s change of heart.
Two Medieval Texts:
1. Medieval Plays- around Christ’s passion. Recreating moments and create empathy.
2. Mandeville- geographical proximity- pilgrimage for the Holy Land.
Travel Literature- John Mandeville not his name claims to be authentic. This person read and made up his
travelling. Similar to Medieval Genres. Within 20 years it was translated in 80 languages.
MAPPAMUNDI (world map)
T in O map.
Dante’s Divine Comedy Map:
“Blow the moon things decay, everything after the moon is ever lasting.” Beyond the stars God surrounds it. There is no more space.
Pliny- Greek and Roman = Earth Round.
Mappaemundi would show places not based on size but of Historical importance.
BELLOW: Cotton Tiberius Mapppa Mundi 11 c. Birtish Library.
the Hereford Mappa mundi Ebstorf M.
Gog and Magog. India is the closest to Paradise. (Earthly Paradise).
Sciapods- men with feet that give them shadow. Also seen in C.S Lewis’ The Dawn Treader.
There are not made up. They make their way through Greek and Roman myths of travellers.
PANOTII- marvels of East. 11 c.
- Le livre des merveilles du monde (early 15 century) belonging to the Duke de Berry
- Contents; travels and descriptions of the East. Some are taken from Marco Polo – Odoric de Pordenone +
Mandeville “lies” were more entertaining. - Lavishly illuminted
- Francais 2810, fol 164, Christ au Mond des Oliviers + Sultan
Sparrowhawk (page 112). Some manuscripts have every request turned down.
Exceptions: Gog and Magog – associated with Huns Pg. 166 (anti-semetic) It would anger the Medieval Times.
Mandeville was French but the “writer” is English.
Which Bible did they use? Dovay-Rheims Bible (available online).
Mirabilia – marvel at them and at creation. Creatures, sciapods for example.
JOURNEY TOWARDS PARADISE: PILGRIMAGE AND MEDIEVAL EUROPE
Pilgrim- rite of passage. Travel to a Holy Land or place ( a well etc)
Christopher Columbus had a John Mandeville’s Travels in his library.
Mary B. Campbell
King Arthur’s tales.
Gerald of Wales- a woman/devils.
They copied the manuscript. They had scribes. Mandeville may have been a monk.
Pilgrimage is a journey to a holy place. They would visit where saints lived or died. A RELIC of a saint may have
been a bone, clothing, an object etc.