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Final

SMC219Y1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Opentext, Doxa, Orality


Department
St. Michael's College Courses
Course Code
SMC219Y1
Professor
Ted Petit
Study Guide
Final

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Chapter 7: Psychoanalytic Theory
Sigmund Freud Instrumental in promotion of psychoanalytic theory  3 Principles
The Pleasure
Principle
The uncontrollable human drive to satisfy desire. Pleasure that takes us outside ourselves.
Desire An appetite for something that promises enjoyment, satisfaction, and pleasure in its attainment
Libido A person’s sex drive or desire for sexual activity
The id The inherited, instinctual part of the psyche, because:
“the one and only urge of these instincts is toward satisfaction” – the Id
The Reality
Principle
Represents the constant curbing of desire according to possibility, law, or social convention.
Ego Regulatory part of the conscious mind that comes to a decision on the fulfillment of a desire
Repression The process of mentally containing our desires below conscious recognition or expression.
The constant curbing of desire according to possibility, law and social convention
Oedipus Complex Identification primarily occurs when the father intercedes on the mother/child union and
dissolves the infant’s intensely pleasurable and sexual desire for the mother.
The Unconscious Part of the mind that acts as a reservoir for desire, and it always attempts to make repressed
desires felt again by interjecting them into conscious life.
“Freudian slip” Recognizing a moment where repressed desires broke through their conscious ones.
Jacques Lacan Psychoanalysis based on the imaginary, the symbolic, and the real.
The Imaginary Pre-Oedipal: pleasurable stage where the infant feels whole and connected to everything via
the bond to the mother.
The Mirror Stage When the child catches its reflection in a mirror and misrecognizes itself as an autonomous
and total whole.
Alienation Changes to what you naturally are. Related to lack.
The Symbolic The cultural pane of social meanings and relationships.
Lack (manqué) We are trapped in a reality whose social order and language keep us from knowing or
expressing pleasure fully. Lack is the state of human existence.
The Real That which is outside language and resists symbolization absolutely;
“the impossible”--impossible to imagine, impossible to integrate into the Symbolic, and
impossible to attain; The Real has a traumatic quality and is the object of anxiety.
Psychoanlytic
Studies
…of Media.
Phallocentrism A social condition where images or representations of the penis carry connotation of power
and dominance. The privileging of signs or symbols that represent male power.
Apparatus Theory Theater reenacts the stage; reproduces Lacanian mirror stage.
Claims that the actual environment and machinery of the cinema activates a number of
psychoanalytic desires within spectators.
Scopophilia Pleasure in looking. Basic human desire. (In a movie theatre, we engage in scopophilia)
Voyeurism Pleasure in watching a desired object or person from a distance.
Fetishism The psychic structuring of an object or (part of a) person as a source of sexual pleasure.
The Male Gaze
or Female gaze, gay
gaze
The media’s frequent positioning of women as objects coded for strong visual and erotic
impact, sexually available etc.
Fantasy A mental representation of conscious or unconscious wish fulfillment
Desire Desiring things create fantasy.
Scene Fantasy is not desire itself, but rather a mental structure that contains the manifestation and
achievement of desire.
Deferral The prolonging of lack. Pleasure comes not from getting what we want, but from the pursuit.
i.e. Romantic film (guy chases girl, guy gets girl and movie ends there)
Freud (Sex) Lacan (Language)
Pre-Oedipal
Stage
-Polymorphous perversity gives rise to
pleasure
- Pleasurable union with mother; connected to
everything.
- Sexual pleasure – oral, anal, and phallic
stages
Imaginary: Pre-lingusitic order
- Pleasurable union with mother; connected to
everything.
Mirror Stage: child misrecognizes self as
complete and in control:
Lays basis for eventual ego formation.
Post-Oedipal
Stage
-Subjectivity based on constant struggle
between pleasure and reality.
Symbolic: Linguistic
Subjectivity based on the acquisition of
language.
Desire -Repression: Suppressed, “unacceptable”
desires retain influence.
-Lack: Desires are outside of signification but
compel us towards wholeness.
Unconscious -Personal psychic area that retains and makes
known repressed desires.
Shared sense of loss in relation to unreachable
Imaginary realm.
The Phallus Actual: the fathers penis that represents
sexual power and masculine presence to child.
Symbolic: the “Law of the Father;” social
convention and norms that represent
patriarchal power to child.
CHAPTER 8: FEMINIST ANALYSIS
Feminism is a political project that explores the diverse ways men and women are socially
empowered or disempowered

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-is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation and oppression
-deconstructs sexist oppression in today’s societal norms
Sexism Discrimination based upon a person’s sex
Sex (biological) -the innate, biological differentiation between men and women  anatomy,
reproduction, hormones, etc. Refers to categories “male” and “female”
Gender (cultural) -culturally constructed differences between men and women role and activities
-refers to categories “masculine” and “feminine”
Essentialism Belief that gender distinctions are innate and natural
Patriarchy System of power relations stating that women’s interests are subordinate to men’s
-empowers men and disempowers women by making gendered power imbalances
seem natural and innate
-also exerts pressure on men: societal expectations of showing no emotion and being
the breadwinner for the family
Misogyny -a cultural attitude of hatred for females because they are female.
-manifested in many different ways: jokes, pornography, violence, the self-contempt
women may be taught to feel toward their own bodies
Stereotype
often persists because it is
difficult to distinguish their
truth from falsity
A misleading and simplified representation of pa particular social group.
-Defines members of the group based on a few members acquiring unfavourable traits
-When these stereotypes become accepted by media = social
oppression/disempowerment of the people in the group
-“lies in combination of validity and distortion”
Gendered Stereotypes
in American Media
Masculinity/Femininity
Gender Stereotypes in American Media reinforce patriarchal power by supporting the
domination of men over women.
-Not only affects women—harms all individuals by the limiting images
Active/Passive -“Being a man”  masculinity, media portrays strength, power and activeness of men
- “Being a woman”  femininity
-Media portrays passiveness, vulnerability and weakness—standing and looking
beautiful in ads—focusing on physical beauty rather than talent and abilities
Public/Private Men: public role—“family provider”, bread winner
Women: private role—“family nurturer”, housewife  cleans, cooks, takes care of kids
-Commonly portrayed in media as the family. Example: The Simpsons
Logical/Emotional Men: through media, logic is a masculine trait—masculine public sphere is related to
politics (decision-making)  associated with rational thinking
Women: in the private sphere, women are nurturers therefore decision-making is
governed by more irrational and emotional impulses
-Beauty and emotion often stereotypically bound together
Sexual Subject/Sexual
Object
Men: sexually powerful—in charge of the sexual encounter  sexual subjects
Women: stereotypically weak and become sexual objects become sexual objects
-Shows women to be pursued and available
Post Feminism and
Media Representation
Postfeminism –an evolution in feminist emphasis from the systematic oppression of all
women to the empowerment of individual women.
Historical Development
(First, second, third waves)
Stanton & Anthony—19th/20th century activists who fought for women’s right to vote
Steinem & Friedan—1970s  fought for women’s workplace and reproductive rights
Third wave  Postfeminism – women have sexual agency, personal choice and
individual empowerment
Logic of Postfeminism Since prior incarnations of feminism has given women “equal” place in society, any
remaining feminist project should concentrate of women’s “individualism,
sophistication, and choice”
Consequences of Sexist
Media Representation
Limited models for
Identification -Distorted images from media makes less ‘real’ models
Proliferation of Eating
Disorders -Women: want to be the “ideal” weight of the slender women used as representations
in media  women are portrayed with the image of being unhealthy, underweight.
Etc.
-Men: dissatisfied with body image musculature, body fat, body size—leads to use
of steroids, unhealthy weightlifting practices, etc.
Influence on the
makeup of social
institutions
-Women earn 77 cents of every $ men did
-Stereotype that women lack qualities of assertiveness and rational thinking places
them in the position that is lower than men in terms of management positions
Glass Ceiling -informal, gendered workplace policies that allow women to progress only so far in
promotion.
Chapter 9: Queer Analysis
Queer Whatever is at odds with the normal, the legitimate, the dominant. There is nothing in
particular to which it necessarily refers To make strange, to frustrate, to delegitimize.
Queer Theory Interdisciplinary perspective which seeks to disrupt socially constructed systems over
meaning regarding human sexuality Use of term queer to claim their own group
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