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St. Michael's College Courses
Francesco Guardiani

CHAPTER ONE: MASS MEDIA What are the Mass Media Industries Books Newspapers Magazines Recordings Radio Movies Television The internet Books were the first mass medium The internet is the newest mass medium How the Communication Process Works 3 ways to describe how people communicate: INTERPERSONAL - communication with one person INTERPERSONAL - communication with two people MASS COMMUNICATION - communication from one person to a group of persons through a transmitting device. The process of mass communication: A sender (source) puts a message on a channel (medium) that delivers the message to the receiver. Feedback occurs when the receiver responds, that response changes subsequent messages from the source. One way to expand a company to take advantage of technological and economic convergence is to acquire an already established company thats successful. Such media acquisitions have skyrocketed for two reasons: 1. Most media companies today are publicly traded, which means their stock is sold on one of the nations stock exchanges. This makes acquisitions relatively easy. 2. The open availability of stock in these public company or individual with enough money can invest in the American media industry. DEREGULATION Means the Federal Communications Commission withdrew many regulatory restrictions on broadcast media ownership. Before 1980, the FCC allowed a broadcast company to own only 5 TV stations. Companies were also required to hold onto a station for 3 years before the owners could sell the station Today, there were few FCC restrictions on broadcast media ownership 3 key concepts to remember: Mass media are profit centered businesses Technological developments change the way mass media are delivered and consumed Mass media both reflect and affect politics, society, and culture Mass media are profit centered business All U.S media are privately owned except the Public Broadcasting and national Public radio, which survive on government support and private donations. Overall, American mass media ownership has been contracting rather than expanding, with fewer companies owning more aspects of the media business. This trend is called concentration of ownership. Concentration of ownership takes 4 forms: chains, broadcast networks, conglomerates and vertical integration. The mass media industries earn about 436$ Billion a year. Competition and Convergence Dominate Media acquisitions in the U.S have skyrocketed because most conglomerates today are publicly traded companies and beginning nit he 1980s the federal government deregulated the broadcast industry. The economic downturn that begun in 2007 made publicly owned newspapers especially vulnerable to takeovers and acquisitions. The trend of mergers and acquisitions is expected to continue as changing technology expands the global market for media products. Why Media Properties Converge Supporters of concentrated ownership and convergence say a large company offers advantages that a small company can never afford; critics say concentrated ownership and convergence interfere with message pluralism. Advertisers and Consumers Pay the Bills Most of the income the mass media industries collect comes from advertising People who want to sell you products pay for most of the information and entertainment you receive through American Mass Media. Consumers support the media indirectly by buying the products that advertisers sell. Technology Changes Mass Media Delivery and Consumption The invention of phonetic writing in 1000 B.C was considered the first information communications revolution. The invention of movable type in 1455 marked the second information communications revolution. The invention of digital computers in 1951 ushered in the third information communications revolution. The new world of mass media uses wireless communications technology, an intricate webbed network of many different types of communications systems. The development of communications technology directly affects the speed with which a society evolves. Storability, portability and accessibility of information of information are essential to todays concept of mass communication. Media Takes Advantage of Digital Delivery Todays information network uses broadcast, telephone, cable, satellite and computer technology. The traditional delivery system for information and entertainment is primarily a one- way system. The ability to talk back-to receive as well as transmit messages- makes the telephone interactive. Todays communication communication network is a two-way, interactive system. How Todays Communications Network Operates The communications network needs to content, two-way digital communication and digital storage. Cable companies, satellite services, telephone and cellular companies deliver services on the new communications network. Cable companies, satellite services, telephone and cellular companies deliver services on the new communications network. Many americans already have all the tools that such a digital communication systems needs - television, telephone, cellular, cable and satellite services and computers. Information and entertainment that already have been produced, stored and digitized have become the first content on the communications network. Many motives shape the American media, including the desire to fulfill the publics need for information, to influence the countrys governance, to disseminate the countries culture, to offer entreatment and to provide an outlet for creative expression. Different media expand and contract in the marketplace to the audience. Mass Media Both Reflect and Affect Politics, Society and Culture The media are political, social and cultural institutions that both reflect and affect the society in which they operate. Multiplying sources of information and entertainment mean that, today, very few people share identical mass media environments. Why You Should Understand Mass Media and Everyday Life In the United States and other countries such as Japan and China that have encouraged technological advancements communication changes are moving faster than ever before. For media industries, this means increasing costs to replace old equipment. For consumers, this means a confusing array of products that need to be replaced soon after you buy them. The development of communications technology directly affects the speed with which a society and culture evolve. It has taken nearly 5,500 years to achieve the capability for instant communication that we enjoy today. CHAPTER 2: BOOKS; REARRANGING THE PAGE Publishers Nurture Ideas and Try to Make Money U.S book publishers produce about 150,000 book titles every year. Publishers have always been torn between the goal of preserving the countrys intellectual ideas and the need to make money Many new owners of publishing houses are trying to limit uncertainty by publishing blockbusters and by spending money on promotional campaigns How American Book Publishing Grew Early publishers widened their audience by publishing political pamphlets, novels, poetry, and humor. The International Copyright Law of 1891 expanded royalty protection to foreign writers, which also benefited American authors. The creation of publishing houses in the 19th and early 20th centuries centralized the process of producing books. The adoption of compulsory education throughout the U.S was important for book publishing's because schools buy textbooks and education created more people who can read. Cheaper Books Create a Mass Market Beginning in the 1920s, publishers dropped prices ad introduced books clubs and paperbacks. Early book clubs, such as Book-of-the-Month, expanded the market for books and widened the audience. The introduction of paperbacks that sold for as little as 25 cents meant books could reach people who had never owned a book before. Investor Buy Up Publishing Companies Before the 1960s, the book publishing industry was composed mainly of independent companies whose only business was books. Publishing companies consolidation began in the 1960s, and this pattern of consolidation continues today. Book Publishing at Work The process of publishing a book usually takes at least 18 months fro the time and author is signed until the book is published. The six departments at a publishing house are acquisitions, production, design, manufacturing, marketing and fulfillment. Authors and Agents: Where Books Begin Publishers acquire books in may ways Publishes pay authors a royalty for their work Agents who represent authors collect fees from the authors they represent How do Books get Published? Book publishing requires an author, an acquisitions editor, a production editor, a designer, a manufacturing supervisor, a marketing department and fulfillment. Many publishing houses are small
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