SMC219Y1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Bay Psalm Book, Compulsory Education, Digital Marketing
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CHAPTER 2: BOOKS: REARRANGING THE FACE
Lewis A Coser, Charles Kadushin, Walter W. Powell: call “the culture and commerce of publishing” the
desire to preserve the country’s intellectual ideas verses the idea to make money. They described th 4
characteristics of book publishing in America today:
o Industry sells products in a market in contrast to that for many other products, is fickle and
o Industry is decentralized among many sectors whose operations are different from another
o Modern mass media production methods and craft-like procedures characterizes these
o The industry remains poised between requirements and restraints of commerce and the
responsibilities and obligations that it must bear as a prime guardian of the symbolic culture
of the nation.
First books in the US were imports by settlers from England, and 1638 the first press was established
in Massachusetts and two years later in 1640, printed was Americas first book: The Bay Psalm Book.
To expand readers, publishers started to sell pamphlets, novels, poetry, and humor.
o Pamphlets: Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
o Novels & Poetry: Ben Franklin sold- Pamela by Samuel Richardson in 1744 – the first novel
published in the US although it was a British import that first appeared in England in 1740.
o Int. Copyright Law of 1981: all authors globally had to give permission to publish their work.
o Publishing Houses: began in the late 18th century, they sought out authors, reviewed and
edited copy, printed, and then sold the books.
o Compulsory Education: imp because now school they needed textbooks
3 events of the 19th century ensured that the book industry would prosper in the 20th century:
o the international copyright law
o the creation of publishing houses
o establishments of compulsory education
Paperbacks: Robert de Graff introduced Americas first series of paperback, called pocket books;
paperbacks democratized reading in America
Today large media corporations own many of the book publishing companies
Successful publishing companies must consistently anticipate both their competitors and the market
Royalties are what publishers pay authors for their work: which is an amount based on an
established percentage of the books price and may run anywhere from 6 – 15 percent of the cover
price of the book
Some authors receive an advance which is an amount the publisher pays the author before the book
How books get published:
o Acquisitions editor looks for potential authors and projects and works out an agreement with
the author; also may represent the company and negotiate sales of subsidiary rights )which
are rights to market a book for other uses; movies etc)
o Production editor – manages all the steps that turn a manuscript into a book
o Designer – decides what a book will look like
o Manufacturing supervisor – buys the typesetting, paper and printing for the books
o Marketing – most expensive part of creating a book, handled by diff departments.
o Advertising – designs ads for books
o Promotion – sends the book to reviewers
o Fulfillment – makes sure that the books get to the stores on time
Today trade books account for almost half the books people buy and textbooks make up about third
of all books sold, the rest are religious and mass market paperbacks.
Book industry has 5 major markets:
o Trade books: designed for the gen public; hardcover fiction, nonfiction, biography, lit classics,
cookbooks, travel, art, sports, music..etc
o Textbooks: difference between many textbooks and trade books is that texts include what
publishers call an apparatus
o Religious books: bibles, etc; about social issues from a religious point of view but these books
are considered trade books
o Mass Market paperbacks: books defined by where they are sold, not by their subjects; mainly
distributed through “mass” channels- newsstands, stores, supermarkets, etc.; made from
cheaper paper and cost less than trade books
o University Press Books and Book Clubs: a university press book is one that a university press
publishes, non profit and connected to a uni along with a museum and research institution;
produce mainly scholarly materials in hardcover and soft cover.
Companies look for extra income in three ways:
o Subsidiary and international rights
o Blockbuster books
o Chain and internet marketing
Audiobooks and ebooks have been added to the market to attract more readers because the amount
of people reading books is declining.
Technologies can lower the cost of producing books, which benefits the industry:
o Computers can monitor inventories closer
o Manuscripts go to author to whoever electronically through the internet
o Electronic graphics make books more interesting
o Websites are used to promote their books and to advertise blockbusters
CHAPTER 3: NEWSPAPERS: EXPANDING DELIVERY
American newspapers began in colonial America more than three centuries ago as one page sheets
that consisted of primarily of announcements of ship arrivals and departures and old news from
Newspapers today are just one part of a large media company rather than family-run operations
From 1690 till the introduction of the radio which was in 1920, newspapers were the main source of
news medium available
Broadcasting in the early 20th century changed newspapers exclusive access to news because
broadcasting was a quicker way to access info
The newspaper industry also historically played a role in defining the cultural concept of an
independent press, based on the belief that the press must remain independent from the govt control
to fulfill its responsibilities to keep the public informed.
Americas first newspaper: Publik Occurrences, published in Boston on Sept 25, 1960 – there was
only one addition because it angered local authorities
The nation’s first consecutively issued newspaper was: The Boston News-Letter which came aroung
New England Courant – first American newspaper to appear without the crowns “published by
James Franklin began the tradition of an independent press in this country.
James Franklin – The Pennsylvania Gazette – most influential and financially successful of all the
Ben Franklin – proved that a printer could make money without govt sanctions or support.
John Peter Zenger – NY – 1733 – New York Weekly Journal – attacked Governer William Cosby and
he was arrested for seditious language but his wife Anna continued publish the paper
Seditious language : language that authorities believe could incite rebellion against the government