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University of Toronto St. George
St. Michael's College Courses
Lindsey Eckert

B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l a n d T e x t u a l S t u d i e s | 1 Force, Smedley “Prolegomena to any future study of Winnie the Pooh.” Williams & Abbot Pg. 1-14 Derrida: “Iteration alters, something new takes place” Texts have lives. Physically embodied in letters written. Reference Bibliography is an enumerative bibliography. Historical Bibliography is the history of the book. Growth of Bibliography as a social science. A wider, broader approach to bibliography associated with the larger questions that book historians like Darnton ask. Analytical B. – considers books as witnesses to the processes that brought them into being. Books as physical objects with physical features. Disinterested examination of books. Not in the words but physical forms. Concerned with the process of book production. Descriptive B- similar to analytical only has different aim. The process and all the variations caused by alterations in the process. There are two purposes to this: 1. Examination where possible of multiple copies it tires to provide a historyof the forms in which a particular book or groups of books was issued. 2. Provides descriptions that serve as a standard for the identification and evaluation of additional copies of these books. Textual Criticism: the study of the transmission of texts. Trace the history of texts and to establish texts according to certain principles. Relations between. Critical. The evidence of analytical and descriptive bibliography assists the textual critic in determining the sequence and correctness of textual alterations made during the printing of a book. Such direct application of analytical bibliography to textual questions is sometimes called textual bibliography. Lecture #1 : Books are containers. Materiality: age of the book, where the book was made, and the audience intended for. Reading without reading. Bibliography vs. Book History W.W. Greg  big bibliographer. “arbitrary marks, no meaning.” Randy McCloud at UofT. Darnton’s Communications Circuit (on Portal) and Makenzie. The Sociology of texts: Authors don’t just write books; there is a series of processes that lead from an author’s ideas to the book in a reader’s hand. These are social, human processes. Books are physical and social objects. B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l a n d T e x t u a l S t u d i e s | 2 Lecture #2: Media Transitions Media transitions and the rhetoric of crisis. Panic always happens in transition periods. Optimists are excited about this new medium. Narratives of media transitions have been surprisingly (and reassuringly?) similar throughout history. These media shifts are usual and more complicated than our narratives suggest. Plato’s Phaedrus c. 370- forgetfulness in the learner’s soul...know nothing. Crisis rhetoric towards the written word. The codex as technology “Introducing the book” Book as the thing that opens. YouTube video. Silent reading was thought as strange. The Medium is the Message: sometimes determined by culture not the media itself. Printing explosion in the machine press period. 1800-1900s Industrial Revolution. Woodsworth- Preface to Lyrical Ballads (1800) “The invaluable works of our elder writers […] are driven into neglect by frantic novels, sickly and stupid German Tragedies, and deluges of idle and extravagant stories in verse.” “German” in this case meaning gothic novel, famous with women. James Gillray, 1802 – Ladies reading, upper class. Thackeray wrote against “coffee table books” “The Internet has become a primary form of external or transactive memory, where information is stored collectively outside ourselves” Knowledge = 1. Books (education), 2. Intelligence 3. Understanding Information = research news, collective. Media Transitions -Changes between media are slower than we often think. -The advent of new media technology does not immediately negate the usefulness of cultural value of a previous technology. -Retro is cool, nostalgia, less accessible, elitism. Neook Color Read Forever TV commercial –YouTube -Images of old and new media -new media introduced as participating in older traditional value systems -continuity is key. Exemplar of media transitions -Rubrication (red ink added to them) in incunables -1501 before books. The first books. Early print were painted more to look like the manuscript before it. Fake watermarks and chain lines were added. B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l a n d T e x t u a l S t u d i e s | 3 The Sociology of Texts – D. F. McKenzie The treaty of Waitangi, 6 Feb 1840 Accelerated version of introduction of printing in Europe (40 years vs. Centuries). Multiple versions of the Treaty as well as the circumstances surrounding its “signing” complicate the document’s authority. Timeline of the Treaty 1815 First efforts to create a written language 1827-8 requests for printers 1834 William Colenso arrives in New Zealand 1834 New Testament in Maori printed 1840 Treaty signed 1845 1 Maori New Testament for every 2 Maori People. Versions of the Treaty • English draft of the treaty (lost) • Henry Williams’ Maori translation • Revised version of the Maori translation (also lost) • Fair copy signed by Maori • 5 English versions sent abroad, all of which differ slightly. What made the shift from oral to written particularly fraught in New Zealand? What determines how we value the written word vs.the oral? Can education be used to oppress? Where does a text’s meaning come from? Lecture # 3 : September 25 , 2012 THE PROCESS OF TRANSCRIPTION Manuscript Production Early Chinese Bamboo Books. Papyrus scroll books -earliest surviving roll book dates from the fourth century B.C. -prominent in Egypt and Greek civilization -In decline by the third century A.D. -The rise of Christianity which favoured the codex format. Parchment Codices -made of sheets of parchment folded into leaves. -favoured by Christians because the form was distinct from others. Paper Codex -Paper: writing material made from pulped rags, wood or other fibrous material. Invented in China early as 1 century A.D. -Imported to Arab word by 8 century th -Traveled to Europe via Egypt and Spain by 12 century though parchment continued to be favoured. B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l a n d T e x t u a l S t u d i e s | 4 -Didn’t take hold in Europe as primary material for written and printed book production until the late fifteen century. -1495 first paper mill in England -Gutenberg printed his Bible on parchment and on paper ANATOMY OF A CODEX -“a rectangular piece of paper [or parchment] used in printing [for manuscript production] and then folded to create the leaves of a book. - Sheet is the basic unit of a codex not a page. -the folded sheet creates a gathering of multiple leafs MATERIALS Harvesting papyrus reed plant (Egypt) -Stalks cut into long thin, strips -Strips soaked in water to release the plant’s natural glues. -Strips laid out in 2 perpendicular layers -Sheet is hammered out to release excess water and create thinner surface -sometimes polished with ivory or shell. DRAWBACKS?  ONE CAN ONLY WRITE ON ONE SIDE. Not as flexible/foldable as parchment or paper. Less durable than parchment or paper. PARCHMENT: materials made from the skin of animals. Specifically refer to the skin of a sheep or a goat (adult) VELLUM: material made from the skin of a calf, kid, lamb (baby animals). UTERINE: finest grade of vellum made from an aborted calf. PARCHMENT PRODUCTION 1. Skin washed thoroughly 2. Soaked in lyme or brine (soap making chemical) 3. De-haired (hair side vs flesh side) 4. Stretched ov
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