B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l a n d T e x t u a l S t u d i e s | 1
Force, Smedley “Prolegomena to any future study of Winnie the Pooh.”
Williams & Abbot Pg. 1-14
Derrida: “Iteration alters, something new takes place”
Texts have lives. Physically embodied in letters written.
Reference Bibliography is an enumerative bibliography.
Historical Bibliography is the history of the book. Growth of Bibliography as a social science. A
wider, broader approach to bibliography associated with the larger questions that book historians like
Analytical B. – considers books as witnesses to the processes that brought them into being. Books as
physical objects with physical features. Disinterested examination of books. Not in the words but
physical forms. Concerned with the process of book production.
Descriptive B- similar to analytical only has different aim. The process and all the variations caused
by alterations in the process. There are two purposes to this:
1. Examination where possible of multiple copies it tires to provide a historyof the forms in which
a particular book or groups of books was issued.
2. Provides descriptions that serve as a standard for the identification and evaluation of additional
copies of these books.
Textual Criticism: the study of the transmission of texts. Trace the history of texts and to establish
texts according to certain principles. Relations between. Critical.
The evidence of analytical and descriptive bibliography assists the textual critic in determining the
sequence and correctness of textual alterations made during the printing of a book. Such direct
application of analytical bibliography to textual questions is sometimes called textual bibliography.
Lecture #1 : Books are containers.
Materiality: age of the book, where the book was made, and the audience intended for. Reading
Bibliography vs. Book History
W.W. Greg big bibliographer. “arbitrary marks, no meaning.” Randy McCloud at UofT.
Darnton’s Communications Circuit (on Portal) and Makenzie.
The Sociology of texts: Authors don’t just write books; there is a series of processes that lead from an
author’s ideas to the book in a reader’s hand. These are social, human processes. Books are physical
and social objects. B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l a n d T e x t u a l S t u d i e s | 2
Lecture #2: Media Transitions
Media transitions and the rhetoric of crisis.
Panic always happens in transition periods. Optimists are excited about this new medium. Narratives
of media transitions have been surprisingly (and reassuringly?) similar throughout history. These
media shifts are usual and more complicated than our narratives suggest.
Plato’s Phaedrus c. 370- forgetfulness in the learner’s soul...know nothing. Crisis rhetoric towards the
The codex as technology “Introducing the book” Book as the thing that opens. YouTube video.
Silent reading was thought as strange.
The Medium is the Message: sometimes determined by culture not the media itself.
Printing explosion in the machine press period. 1800-1900s Industrial Revolution.
Woodsworth- Preface to Lyrical Ballads (1800) “The invaluable works of our elder writers
[…] are driven into neglect by frantic novels, sickly and stupid German Tragedies, and deluges of idle
and extravagant stories in verse.”
“German” in this case meaning gothic novel, famous with women.
James Gillray, 1802 – Ladies reading, upper class.
Thackeray wrote against “coffee table books”
“The Internet has become a primary form of external or transactive memory, where information is
stored collectively outside ourselves”
Knowledge = 1. Books (education), 2. Intelligence 3. Understanding
Information = research news, collective.
-Changes between media are slower than we often think.
-The advent of new media technology does not immediately negate the usefulness of cultural value of
a previous technology.
-Retro is cool, nostalgia, less accessible, elitism.
Neook Color Read Forever TV commercial –YouTube
-Images of old and new media
-new media introduced as participating in older traditional value systems
-continuity is key.
Exemplar of media transitions
-Rubrication (red ink added to them) in incunables -1501 before books. The first books.
Early print were painted more to look like the manuscript before it. Fake watermarks and chain lines
were added. B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l a n d T e x t u a l S t u d i e s | 3
The Sociology of Texts – D. F. McKenzie
The treaty of Waitangi, 6 Feb 1840
Accelerated version of introduction of printing in Europe (40 years vs. Centuries).
Multiple versions of the Treaty as well as the circumstances surrounding its “signing” complicate the
Timeline of the Treaty
1815 First efforts to create a written language
1827-8 requests for printers
1834 William Colenso arrives in New Zealand
1834 New Testament in Maori printed
1840 Treaty signed
1845 1 Maori New Testament for every 2 Maori People.
Versions of the Treaty
• English draft of the treaty (lost)
• Henry Williams’ Maori translation
• Revised version of the Maori translation (also lost)
• Fair copy signed by Maori
• 5 English versions sent abroad, all of which differ slightly.
What made the shift from oral to written particularly fraught in New Zealand?
What determines how we value the written word vs.the oral?
Can education be used to oppress?
Where does a text’s meaning come from?
Lecture # 3 : September 25 , 2012 THE PROCESS OF TRANSCRIPTION
Early Chinese Bamboo Books. Papyrus scroll books
-earliest surviving roll book dates from the fourth century B.C.
-prominent in Egypt and Greek civilization
-In decline by the third century A.D.
-The rise of Christianity which favoured the codex format.
-made of sheets of parchment folded into leaves.
-favoured by Christians because the form was distinct from others.
-Paper: writing material made from pulped rags, wood or other fibrous material. Invented in China
early as 1 century A.D.
-Imported to Arab word by 8 century
-Traveled to Europe via Egypt and Spain by 12 century though parchment continued to be favoured. B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l a n d T e x t u a l S t u d i e s | 4
-Didn’t take hold in Europe as primary material for written and printed book production until the late
-1495 first paper mill in England
-Gutenberg printed his Bible on parchment and on paper
ANATOMY OF A CODEX
-“a rectangular piece of paper [or parchment] used in printing [for manuscript production] and then
folded to create the leaves of a book.
- Sheet is the basic unit of a codex not a page.
-the folded sheet creates a gathering of multiple leafs
Harvesting papyrus reed plant (Egypt)
-Stalks cut into long thin, strips
-Strips soaked in water to release the plant’s natural glues.
-Strips laid out in 2 perpendicular layers
-Sheet is hammered out to release excess water and create thinner surface
-sometimes polished with ivory or shell.
DRAWBACKS? ONE CAN ONLY WRITE ON ONE SIDE. Not as flexible/foldable as parchment
or paper. Less durable than parchment or paper.
PARCHMENT: materials made from the skin of animals. Specifically refer to the skin of a sheep or a
VELLUM: material made from the skin of a calf, kid, lamb (baby animals).
UTERINE: finest grade of vellum made from an aborted calf.
1. Skin washed thoroughly
2. Soaked in lyme or brine (soap making chemical)
3. De-haired (hair side vs flesh side)
4. Stretched ov