Ch2 Adaptations to the Physcial Environment - Water and Nutrients5.pdf

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University College Courses
Spencer Barrett

 cells on exterior of leaf are coated w/ waxy cuticle  gas exchange occurs through stomstomates stomatag. stoma (sstomaopenings at leaf surfaces)  plants close stomates to reduce water loss (but also prevents CO from e2tering)  as water pot. decreases, the guard cells bordering a stomate collapse, causing them to press together and shut off the opening Salt Balance and Water Balance  orgnms must balance losses of water and dissolved substances w/ intake  when they drink water that is diff. in solute conc. than their bodies, they must make up the deficit or rid themselves of excess  solutes are left behind when water evaporates from orgnm surfaces  high salt conc. can disrupt cell function  osmoregulation is the mechanism that organisms use to maintain a proper salt balance Management of Salt Balance by Plants  pump excess salts back into soil by active transport across their root surfaces  mangroves grow on coastal mudflats inundated daily by high tides (imposes high salt load; saltwater has high osmotic pot.)  they counter problems by maintaining high conc. of organic solutes in their roots and leaves (increase osmotic pot.)  salt glands in leaves secret salt by active transport (some species also through roots)  they have adaptations that plants in dry envmts have Water and Salt Balance in Terrestrial Animals  they are less vulnerable to water loss (internalized gas exchange surfaces), don’t lose ions like aquatic anim
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