Ch16 Competition5.pdf

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University College Courses
Spencer Barrett

BIO120H © Lis| Page 511  competition occurred primarily below ground under low nutrient conditions, and above ground in fertilized plots  thus, plants traded off belowground competitive ability for the ability to tolerate saline and anoxic conditions  asymmetric competition  superior competitor is limited by its lesser tolerance of stress  Juncus gerardi excludes Spartina patens from the upper, less stressful part of the intertidal zone, but can’t withstand the salinity and anoxia of soils lower down  competition is manifested depending on the characteristics of the interacting species and their habitats COMPETITION MAY OCCUR THROUGH DIRECT INTERFERENCE  exploitative competition: competition b/w indiv. or species by way of their mutual effects on shared resources  compete indirectly  interference competition: direct antagonistic interaction b/w indiv. or species competing for resources, usu. by behavioural or chemical means  aggressively defending resources  ex. chasing, drying sponges use poisonous chemicals to overcome other sponge species as they expand to fill open space, shrubs release toxic chemical into soil  species are behaviourally dominant in its preferred habitat (home advantage) ex. voles Allelopathy  allelopathy: interference competition among plants by means of toxic secondary compounds (chemical competition)  ex. black walnut (Juglans nigra) trees
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