W & G Practice Exam Questions & Answers.docx

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Women and Gender Studies
Doug Thomson

W & G Study Questions The condition of the native is a nervous condition introduced and maintained by the settler among the colonized with their consent (Jean Paul Sartre/ Franz Fanon) This so called “nervous condition” resembles discussions held on bodily manifestations as a device used to explain colonialisms affect on foreign countries. These bodily discussions surface a sense of cultural inferiority, as the use of illness in the novel is used metaphorically to indicate the effects of cultural imperialism on the people of a small Rhodesian village. This particular condition effects one “native” in particular who goes by the name of Nyasha. A character in the novel, which was largely affected by an eating disorder and through this conveyed the implications of Western forces on African lifestyles. As seen, education (through colonialism efforts) was largely assimilated into African school children, as few had the opportunity to achieve such a desirable tool for success and felt obligated to “lift their families out of poverty” when presented with this valuable mean. However, when they possessed the rare chance to become educated individuals, they had often lost their African roots becoming motivated by Western beliefs and values. Thus, African culture lost touch with its common native upon allowing the colonizers to subliminally strip it away. The Three Pillars of White Supremacy The Three Pillars of White Supremacy entail three categories classified as slavery/capitalism, genocide/colonialism, and orientalism/war. According to June Larkin’s University of Toronto lecture, Gender, Race & Colonizing Knowledge’s, white supremacy is classified as “the belief that white people are superior to people of other racial backgrounds and the practices and policies that support that belief (Larkin, 2012). This sort of ethnocentrism results in the victimization of certain races by a heteronormative political base. For example, in terms of the slavery/ capitalism category, white supremacy makes Blackness associated with slaveability and places people on a racial hierarchy (Smith, 2006). The second category of the pillars is genocide/ capitalism, which permits the death and disappearance of indigenous peoples, in order to allow for the reclamation of their land by the White society (Smith, 2006). On the other end of the spectrum lies Orientalism, coined by Edward Said, which identifies certain individuals or nations as inferior and threaten the empire or other nations (Smith, 2006). The effects of Orientalism are largely seen in the United States, as the “war on terror” created alarming consequences to the Arab Americans who suffered the implications of racial profiling and high security measures. Gender Regulation Gender regulation is the system, which is used to simplify sex and the concepts of gender into two definitive and biological forms of masculine and feminine. This process impedes individuals from forbiddingly crossing or mixing gender roles, gender identities and gender attributes (Larkin, 2012). Ensuring the regulation of gender in individuals has gone so far that 5 Laws of Gender have been created. The first law is identified as there are two genders, and everyone is/has one, the second, that genitals (penis, vagina) are the essential signs of gender. Therefore, when a child does not acquire two separate genitals, they become medicalized in the sense that, “The birth of a child with ambiguous genitalia constitutes a medical emergency” (cite). This illustrates the urgency and alarming feeling that overwhelms individuals upon discovering a broken norm in the department of gender. The third law is that the categories are constructed by nature and that membership in a gender category is assigned by nature, the forth law, that exceptions to the two genders are considered seriously abnormal and the final law, that gender is lifelong, fixed, invariant and unchangeable. Regardless of the laws imposed on gender, social constructionism continues to believe that gender is a fluid construct, not determined by biological means but is the result of our environment, our performance, our culture and our society because in the end, “We don’t have gender, we do gender” (Larkin, 2012). Negative & Positive Eugenics Before outlining the definitions of negative and positive eugenics, eugenics must be understood as those who are classified as “well-born” and include the practices that are created to ensure that human heredity is improved. Positive and negative eugenics are on the opposite end of the spectrum. Positive eugenics is the process that attempts to encourage selected/ desirable groups to breed while negative eugenics is the process that attempts to prevent the breeding of those who are considered “undesirable” (Larkin, 2012). The eugenics movement created uproar in society, as propaganda claimed the importance of passing on favorable genes and that the creation of measurement tests such as fitter families scorecard became the daily norm. Neo- Malthusians began to advocate the need for population control through targeting the women’s body and her reproductive abilities. Sterilization laws had been heavily imposed on minorities despite their will, which lead to the creation of reproductive justice. Reproductive justice, “Focuses attention on the social, political, and economic inequalities among different communities that contribute to the infringements of reproductive system, while recognizing systematic inequities” (Larkin, 2012). It allowed women to understand historical impacts on their reproductive rights and reclaim their bodies. Feminization of the Labour Market The feminization of the labour market is largely associated with a growing amount of women who have found themselves in the workplace. It is also affiliated with the sexual division of labour, which allocates jobs and responsibilities according to gender. This field of work that is employed by women is similar to that done within the home and is labeled domestic work or caring work. From the 1980’s onward, there has been an increasing interest in domestic work (Trotz, 2013). However, this is not the only work that women conduct as they are also hired in service sector jobs, which require and depend on what Arlie Hochschild claims to be “emotional labour”. Women have also found themselves in the sports sector, which was a commonly masculine identity and past time. It is important to realize that although the acquisition of employment by women is noteworthy, it is at many times the lowest end of the occupation spectrum and involves no recognition and at times abuse (statistics sheet for service work) Objectification Women in advertisements today must be critically analyzed, through the process of representation. Representation involves an individual’s awareness of words and images seen in the media and the way that they give us information about gender and culture (Trotz, 2013). For example, Barbie serves as a “perfect” woman, yet she also represents a physical ideal that cannot be reached by the average women. This illustrates Western cultural expectations on women and how the culture favorably responds to such an unrealistic model. Feminist consumerism is defined as, “The linking of ideals for gender equality to consumption practices” (Trotz, 2013). Militarization Cynthia Enloe claims that militarization is “a step-by-step process in which a person or thing gradually comes to be controlled by the military or comes to depend on it for its well being on militaristic ideas”. It seeks to normalize military ideas, force and goals among society. The military employment sector also employs habits, such as the exploitation and supposed need of military goods and services in society. Cynthia Enloe is interested in explaining how and why women are included in the workforce during military regimes. She concludes that women are either excluded from jobs that are considered to be male dominated (aerospace engineering), they are either included briefly in some sorts of jobs only to be excluded again (shipbuilding) and also they are included merely because the work that is employed is seen to be “traditional” women’s work (Enloe, 1983). Nonetheless, women’
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