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Women and Gender Studies
Geoff Hollis

21 The Child Penalty: Ashley Varajao The Child Penalty (1) Define. Women with children earn less· Men don’t have the same issue· In the workplace, working mothers, encounter systematic disadvantages in pay, perceived competence, and benefits relative to childless women.· Women have to pause their careers when they have children Mothers may also suffer worse job-site evaluations indicating that they are less committed to their jobs, less dependable, and less authoritative· Places them as the ideal worker for ‘nurturing ’positions, like nurses but not doctors· Mothers may experience disadvantages in terms of hiring, pay, and daily job experience Prospective employers were less likely to call back mothers for interviews than non-mothers§ See it as an impediment to work Situate· Affordability and quality in childcare overall in Canada is still an issue forcing many women to drop out of the labour market or reduce their working hours during childrearing years· There’s a market premium, rather than a penalty associate with being a father Example· Gloria’s daughter didn’t purse education to care for her child despite getting the money (Goldstein)Relate· Ties to the gender wage gap Feminization of Labour: Khursheed Sadat -Feminization of labour was a concept first used to describe the entrance of more women, particularly married women with children, into the wage labour market as a result of industrialization and globalization processes. The problem is that with a market economy transitional toward increase in the service sector, these women are entering in gendered jobs, with relatively low pay, and few benefits if any. Occupational Segregation: Janelle Lozano - occurs when men/women work in occupational fields that are dominated by gender- although occupational segregation has declined in the past few decades; it is an enduring feature of the contemporary labor market; most workers remain in sex segregated jobs- occupation discrimination fuels the gender wage gap because men's occupation tends to pay better and have greater advancement - racialized divisions are also evident by occupation- women are generally devalued so are the jobs and skills that are associated with them ONE EXAMPLE is the cultural devaluation of women's work for lower wages in female-dominated field- women are twice as likely to work part time as men Vertical Segregation : Janelle Lozano or hierarchal segregation or 'authority gap' - refers to fact men are much more likely than women to be in positions of authority- one factor that may influence vertical gender discrimination is 'glass ceiling' prevents or reduces the promotion of women beyond a certain point, especially in fields where they are statistical minority.- in canada, women are less likely to climb career ladder- theories of glass ceiling argue that there are gender biased barriers to higher status position sex: lack of informal mentoring of female workers- having a mentor is important to one's chances of reaching the highest positions yet majority of successful male workers are reluctant to mentor women- because worry of gossiping or sexual charges or harassment- women are stereotyped as being weak and therefore not good candidates for top positions The Glass Escalator Effect: Ju Bora The glass escalator refers to the phenomenon of when a male in a predominantly female populated field have an advantage in the workforce. The male may have more opportunity and escalade for higher positions because of one’s own sexuality. eg. Salzinger's book, the men are told they can move into positions of authority and they do, whereas females would have to sacrifice femininity to do it. - over-representation of men in authoritative positions. Economism : Ashley Varajao Define· The assumption that the capitalism economic system operates like an impersonal machine, geared to the extraction of surplus value, and indifferent to the sorts of people absorbed into its workings. Situate· "In arguing against 'economism' - the reduction of sex oppression to capitalist economic imperatives - we have, in effect, left Marxism to the male Marxists, many of whom would very much like to believe that capitalist production relations have nothing to do with sexual relations and that the struggle between capital and labour is unconnected to – hence unchallenged by - the sex struggle...We want to take the issue of gender hierarchy into the heart of Marxist economic analysis itself" (Phillipsand Taylor 1980: 81).· Emergency of patriarchy Relates to Marx question below number 3 regarding ghettos (week 5 ) Deskilling : Olivia Or From lecture 5 slide: “When knowledge which was once part of the job becomes part of the power of capital itself, it is transferred from the worker to technical experts or managers and the worker is reduced to performing routine operations within a larger production process that is no longer fully comprehended.” The worker operates without understanding the entire operation (related to alienated labour). This occurs in the putting out system and assembly line type work (where workers don’t know how to make the entire product). Deskilling is used not only to increase production efficiency, but also to maintain control over workers. Fordism and flexible accumulation use “deskilled” work (in conceptual terms), but work is actually labelled as “skilled”. This begs the question: how does one distinguish skilled vs. unskilled labour? Example: the ‘clerical worker’ job was created because the tasks involved were deemed feminine (i.e. getting coffee, photocopies, doing repetitive tasks) and thus the job became deskilled as a result of it being deemed feminine. In today’s world, capitalism is actively trying to create an obedient workforce (AKA a feminized workforce) by making people dependent on employers through the deskilling of their labour (removing their relationship to capital). Thus, we are all “women labourers” in today’s world. Maternalism : Mandy Gray Refers to the notion that women (as mothers) had unique insights into politics and special obligations to intervene (“Mother-Citizen and Working Girl” 33). a.In the article --> child care -->an example of how the Canadian welfare state is gendered and(re)productive of inequalities b. Social policy development --> They argue that, when taken together, middle- and working-class activists discourses about women’s social and political inclusion reveal a fractured and polarized figure of the female social citizen --> mothering and volunteering in philanthropic activities excluded market activity (paid work) i. Maternalist discourse allowed middle-class activists to claim citizenship on the basis of ‘mothering’ –in the sense of their role of infusing morality into the public realm c. maternalism supported a sense of women’s autonomy and of the special import of women’s activism --> suffrage Rana Plaza : Olivia Or A garment factory that collapsed in Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh) in April 2013. Over 1000 people killed (figures not agreed upon), 2000 injured. Only 9 of 29 firms involved in the disaster went to the Geneva Convention to discuss compensation for workers’ families. This has sparked a debate: should we boycott Bangladesh or not? By boycotting companies involved, perhaps incidents like Rana Plaza won’t happen again. Then again, these factories do provide jobs for thousands and stimulate the local economy – but be careful with this argument…consider Goldstein’s argument about the euphemization of power relations: privileged classes seem to think that lives of servitude are better than the alternative (life of poverty) for Bangladeshi citizens (an active concealment of domination). This protects class privilege. The Cambio System : Khursheed Sadat - Cambio system is a concept discusses in Leslie Salzinger's book Genders in Production, chapter 5 when analyzing the factory PARTICIMEX. The Cambio system is structured around team work whom are collectively responsible for production. The factory floor was composed of all workers dressed the same, this had an effect on workers subjectivities and they feel a sense of autonomy and control. Salzinger (2003) examines, "workers are addressed in a deeply pleasurable, liberating language; yet it is coupled with a narrative that accepts and sustains the naturalness of male power" (98). Women occupy low positions in the factory with low pay, the transnational corporations benefits from minimizing costs of production, and they do with through the mechanism of "Cambio" which works to affect the subjectivities of the workers... Trope of homemade feminine diffidence: Teri Ly . his term is used in Salzinger’s ethnography to explain why female workers at Particimex do not rise up the ranks on the factory floor despite the Cambio structure that claims equality among men and women workers within gender-neutral discourses  The women are viewed, and indeed come to view themselves as having an inherent “feminine distaste for power”, shyness or lack of self-confidence that prevents them from moving up in the ranks.  Salzinger explains that managerial strategies to use gender-neutral discourses inherently invoke the gendered masculine self assumed by the shop floor. Because of this, men in Particimex move up the ranks easier than women do. (This is an example of the ‘Glass escalator effect’) Puzzle of Passivity : Tazrine Haque It is the question that most social scientists ask when doing field work. Why are these workers putting up with such little security from their jobs? Why don’t they get together and fight their marginalization and demand better conditions and higher pay, why do they passively accept their working conditions as it is? Dunk speaks to this concept with his pulp mill workers, and argues that this passivity is created through emphasis on individual responsibility and self-reliance, so that they don’t even look to unions for betterment. The hegemonic discourse of meritocracy that encourages hard work and promises many rewards for this hard work. So it allows people to believe that if they work hard they will be fine, thus legitimizing the inferior positions of those that don’t “work as hard”. Dunk says that “ Some segments of the white, male industrial working class in N.America tend to perceive the solution to the employment crisis in individualized and instrumental terms, I show that this perception is not automatic. Both corporate and state actors have to work hard to produce a relative passivity among the workers. ” In Dunks article this passivity was cultivated through offering counselling and tools for relearning and developing skills for new jobs, and those that were willing to do it were eligible for greater and longer benefit terms.In contrast, Constable’s article provides the conditions that are required for workers to protest, showcasing why migrant workers in Hong Kong are allowed to protest for job rights—They are flexible non- citizen workers and Hong Kong prides itself on being an international city and not paralleling itself to mainland China’s dictatorship. The puzzle of passivity is also grappled with by Mies when discussing women lace makers of Narsupur. Particimex Coordinator : Lara Ozugergin Reading—Genders in Production by Leslie Salzinger. The Particimex coordinator is responsible for keeping track of production processes and reporting them to management. They indicate whether the numbers (quantity, quailty, labor efficiency) of these processes are communicated correctly. Individuals for these jobs are chosenthrough voting and they are supposed to rotate every six months. However,because they require immense responsibility, people don’t want to become coordinators. The particular significance of coordinators is that they become the vertical link between workers and management. They must make sure that processes operate in the interests of production rather than worker resistance. Although officially they are part of the management, they are also peers of workers. This is why workers feel a sense of responsibility towards their coordinators, and make sure that production is quick and efficient: “Through them, a sense of responsibility and anxiety over speed and quality is transmitted to other members of the team” (Salzinger 86). Within the context of labor processes, this term carries significant importance because although it is a method of control, management has ensured workers’ auto-control through the coordinator where workers do not need to be encouraged by managers to work,they do it themselves because of their internalization of responsibility and control through the presence of the coordinator. Responsibilization : Teri Ly  The act or process of making one responsible 1. In Particimex, workers are made to feel a large responsibility for production because Cambio implies that workers have control 1. Workers are willing to go without a bathroom break in order to keep the team support from resigning, and in turn have to each substitute as supports themselves 1. Laid-off pulp mill workers in Northern Ontario disciplined through ‘responsibilization’ 1. That it is their own responsibility to further their education or skills in order to get a better job, adjust them to the reality of the current labour market Piecework System (Andromex): Lara Ozugergin Reading--Genders in Production by Leslie Salzinger. In Andromex,rather than an assembly line or machines that dictate production, there is a piecework system in place where workers set themselves goals and aspire to meet them within a certain time frame. Because they are paid by the piece, ratherthan working towards the managements’ output, they are able to control theirlabor experiences by what Salzinger refers to as a self- imposed and self-referential structure. Problems arise within this system because for example, when material shortages occur, workers see this as a decrease in potential for themselves. Management does not compensate for downtime where workers could have produced more output, increased their financial gains and ultimately reached whatever they had set their goal as in a shorter period oftime. This process is significant because rather than working within a team orfor management, where they would have felt responsible towards others, they work for themselves and their own benefit, also increasing the general output for the factory as a whole. Transnationalization of the service economy : Ju Bora Translocal internationalization of production  As developing economies are integrated into the world economy, more production takes place in these areas, and there is a "global industrial shift”. Production processes are relocated from developed countries (e.g. the U.S., England, and Japan) to developing countries in Asia (e.g. China, Vietnam and India) and Latin America.  1970s/80s – Maquiladoras attract increasing scholarly attention, in part, because they seemed to exemplify “the new international division of labour” (NIDL – Frobel, Heinrichs and Kreye 1978)  term emerged in the context of globalization and attempts to explain the spatial shift of manufacturing industries from advanced capitalist countries to developing countries.  understood as a spatial division of labor which occurs when the process of production is no longer confined to national economies.  Under the “old” international division of labor (until around 1970) underdeveloped areas were incorporated into the world economy principally as suppliers of unprocessed resources and food products. eg. Maquiladora or maquila (calarco 2009 Sage)  often used synonymously to identify a foreign-owned factory in Mexico and Central America  maquiladora workers are predominately female; approximately 70% of this workforce is made up of women, some as young as 12 years of age  site of sweated labour - workers are employed for long hours at low pay in poor working conditions  the existence of these foreign-owned assembly plants was facilitated by the North American Free Trade Agreement Authenticity Work : Warsan Jama Authenticity Work refers to a process of proclaiming legitimacy through an effort-filled set of activates (e.g. training, learning and the continual (re) constitution of ones identity) Indian call service agents perform authenticity work by simultaneously constructing themselves as foreign workers who do not threaten Western jobs as legitimate colonial subjects who revere the West as real Indians who form an offshore model workforce providing the cheap immobile labor needed in the West, as flexible workers who are trainable and global and as workers who are far way yet familiar enough to provide good services to their customers. Reference: Phone Clone Emotional Labour: Farnaz Hosseini : According to Hochschild she refers to Emotion Labour as work that involves "produc[ing]] the proper state of mind in others. It requires the production and consumption of the workers identity as part of the customer service experience Reference: The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling . In the book Phone Clone it states that the call center service in India is a site where notions of femininity structures the nature of work for both female and male workers. Call center operators are required to speak in ways that are symbolically coded as feminine. They are asked to be emotionally expressive and to smile while they speak on the phone. Workers enact femininity not only by smiling while they are on the phone but also through other forms of emotion work. The term emotion work focuses considerable attention on the differences in the types of "feeling work" that individuals do in a wide variety of jobs as well as on the expectations and norms surrounding their work. I.e. managing ones own feelings on the job, making others feel a certain way.Emotion work in the context of customer service work involves managing customer anger. Customer service workers around to solve complex customer problems through short telephone interactions Segregation and Desegregation of Occupations - Hina The dynamics of occupational segregation and desegregation are situated within global relations. Links between gender, skill, and jobs situated within NEOCOLONIAL relations embodied in transnational corporations. Female-dominated service jobs (with little autonomy and stability, as well as few opportunities for learning) are redefined as "technical" and exported to countries with cheap labor to be done by highly educated female and male workers. Since the 1970s, researchers have noted women’s overrepresentation in export-processing industries. Women, in many parts of Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America, have been constructed as 'ideal' workers within transnational production. More recently, feminists writing about transnational global regimes have noted the growing desegregation of traditionally feminized subcontracted jobs. E.G. SALZINGERSalzinger documents the growing integration of men into the maquiladoras in a case study of a factory that employs an equal number of women and men. She notes that "the subjects who are enacted are not ungendered; they are implicitly masculinized" and all workers are assumed to be breadwinners automatically invested in autonomy and high productivity (101-112). Gender is not enacted as a difference between women and men; rather "men become a new prototype.... Minor increases in shop-floor autonomy and pay made men seem a natural new workforce" (122).Indian call centers (that provide voice-to-voice service to U.S. clients) seem to exemplify the trend of desegregation… Men are entering into traditionally female-dominated service sector employment. Mirchandani's analysis of call Center workers adds to the body of work that demonstrates how femininity and masculinity are enacted in local contexts AND simultaneously situated within racialized transnational regimes. -The call center workers she interviewed in India are employed in a demographically integrated occupation in that there is little difference between the nature of tasks and pay levels of male and female workers.- She argues that the gendered norms that emerge are significantly structured by the racialized relations between workers in India and the clients they serve in the U.S. Also, we must consider how night work is gendered. Mirchandani argues "that the gender segregation in segments of the outsourced call center industry in India is situated within the context of racial hierarchies between Indian workers and Western customers, which fundamentally structure transnational service work. Gender is "eclipsed" in the sense that it is hidden behind a profound, racialized gendering of jobs ata transnational level" (105). Intersectionality: Adriana Aragona Those found at an intersection of gender race and class are multiply burned by mutually constitutive factors that contribute to their disadvantage and further oppression. In other terms, intersecting factors such as race, gender and class can all contribute to the disadvantage and marginalization of already underprivileged groups. Furthermore, this marginalized group of people also find themselves at the very bottom of the capitalist system in which its functioning is interconnected with social hierarchies, gender and racial discourses. Traditional lines of authority and privilege are reinforced and perpetuated by the work performed by those being marginalized by their levels of intersectional disadvantage These intersections can dictate production arrangements, labor experiences and act as a strong predictor of social capital. Women finding themselves at an intersection of disadvantage can be found in any week throughout the course. However drawing on a few specific examples we can see how Donna Goldstein addresses this notion. Goldstein examines the life of a domestic worker in Brazil, one of the lowest paying jobs, held mostly by lower class, women of colour. It is embedded within the Brazilian culture, that a sign of one’s class is associated with obtaining a domestic worker to perform the daily tasks. Racialized gendering of jobs: Hina Workers are well aware of the servitude that their jobs require. This servitude is often contextualized within the rhetoric of national responsibility, whereby India's attractiveness as a location for subcontracting is said to depend on workers' ability to satisfy the demands of foreign clients…Encounters of rudeness and aggression are normalized through relations of production that simultaneously situate clientsas whites, as Americans and as customers. This threefold social location overrides class boundaries that are being crossed with call center work,whereby highly educated Indian workers employed in middle-class, white-collaroccupations often are serving lower-class, poorly educated American callers.Work processes and structures in Indians ubcontracted call centers privilege the needs and, at times, the racist perspectives of American customers.At the same time, workers' descriptions of customers as culturally prone to being erratic allow female and male workers to avoid reverence of "Americans" and deal with the performance of hegemonic femininity that their jobs require.-In these ways, transnational call center workinvolves a "racialized gendering of jobs," wherebyoften highly educated men and women of color in the geographic South are engagedin the type of employment that is conventionally associated with deskilled andfeminized work in the North.-Workers recognize that subservience and“mothering” are integral aspects of their jobs, but men rather than womendefine their jobs as deskilled and feminized.Women characterize their work as"technical," thus distancing call center work from otherfemale- dominated, service-sector jobs…There is little worker discretion in callcenter work. However, work in call centers is promoted through organizationalrhetoric, training facilities, and job advertisements as providing theopportunity for employees to gain technical skills involving a multinationalcorporation (MNC). Although women and men in call centers do thesame jobs, they have substantially different experiences of their jobs astechnical. Male call center workers do not attempt toredefine their jobs in terms of attributes typically associated withmasculinity (i.e. an aptitude for the technical). They describe their jobs asnon-technical, deskilled. Putting Out System: Khursheed Sadat - this refers to production for trading and export. example in the lecture was that before contact with Europeans the Cherokee economy consisted of self-sufficient subsistence economy of agricultural production. Contact with Europeans integrated them into global economy, traders gave them tools (guns) for production and an advance of goods in exchange for their labour. Men became preoccupied with this new economic system which destroyed the traditional activities and stimulated debt peonage because given goods in advance, to pay off debts communal cherokee land was sold by chiefs appointed by the British.... women were forced into the private sphere where they did most of the work, which before was shared between both men and women. Fordism/Post-Fordism : Nisha Khan Fordism  Named after Henry Ford and the production of Ford vehicles (1945 - 1970’s)  Economic and social system based on an industrialized and standardized form of mass production.  Ideas of mass consumption to mass consumption become a lifestyle - Mass Production means standardization of product as well as mass consumption Characterized by:  The standardization of the product (nothing hand-made: everything is made through machines and not by skilled craftsmanship)  Tools are designed to permit workers with low skill levels to operate "assembly lines"  Workers are paid higher "living" wages, so they can afford to purchase the products they make.  Fordism creates power imbalances: White, highly unionized male work force, and ‘the rest” - Starts early socialist feminist theories Post Fordism  Economic production used by most industrialized countries since the late 20th C.  Post-modernism is variously used to refer to the cultural changes associated with late capitalism or post-industrial society  Characteristics  Small-batch production  Specialized products and jobs  New information technologies  Emphasis on types of consumers in contrast to previous emphasis on social class  The rise of the service and the white-collar worker  Post Fordism is more transnational and international than Fordism. Example of sweat shop labour. Production of one item goes throughout different countries/regions.  Introduction of white-collar workers create class and labour hierarchy, in which the white collar workers can exploit blue collar workers. Roosevelt’s New Deal: Adriana Aragona As mentioned in lecture, if we want to understand the distribution of power relations that exist today, the history of capitalism and how it came to be is entirely essential for a complete understanding the distribution of power. President Franklin Roosevelt's “New Deal” had an effect on the concentration of capital being redirected into the hands of men and allowed for them to dominate economically within the labour market. Let us explore the how the implementation of the “New Deal” has effected the labor market for women and power relations. Roosevelt's New Deal is a modicum of state authoritarianism and interventionism. At this time in the economy (before implementation) many diverse attempts were made within different nation states in order to arrive at political, institutional and social arrangements that could accommodate the chronic incapacitates of capitalism to regulate the essential condition for it’s own arrangements. In 1933 under the banner of National Recovery Administration (NRA) the Roosevelt began and implemented a massive public work order to aide massive job losses that occurred causing for the Depression. Roosevelt put the “New Deal” in place in order to restart the economy. The New Deal was influenced by Keynes, who as well hoped to stabilize capitalism through a set of managerial strategies and enforce and maintain state powers. Workers were disciplined to new and more efficient production systems and excess capacity was absorbed in part through productive expenditures on much need infrastructures for both production and consumption. The Work Progress Administration (WPA) provided 8.5 million jobs for Americans which includes road building and repair. Massive amounts of money was spent on this New Deal project however it resulted in a boost to U.S industries and helped fix the nations economy. In many New Deal Programs that provided jobs to struggling families to help them survive the effects and job losses of the great depression only ONE job was allowed per family. This default was to exclude women from the labour force and offer only the “available” jobs to men. Thus, forcing women to remain within the home and causing for the perpetuation of unpaid employment and women’s exploitation. The capitalist economy forced women into the home and used their gender as a way to exploit them. In this time if a women was the sole or primary breadwinner of the household this was frowned and looked down upon and caused for the stigmatization of both the man and the woman who resided within that household. The Culture of Capitalism: Hina Women have always participated in economicactivity, across time and space, albeit to varying degrees. However, if onedefines participation in the economy as participation in a labor market, wherelabor is traded for pay, then one of the most striking social changes duringthe past century has been the large increase in women's participation in theeconomy” (Jacobsen 2009:238)In addition to the traditional means ofaccumulating wealth—mercantile trade, extracting the surplus from peasant labour, pillage, forced labour, slavery, and taxes—a new form of capitalformation increased in importance. Called Capitalism, it involvedpurchasing and combining the means of production and labour power to produce commodities.For capitalism to exist:– Wealth or money must be ableto produce labour power. But as long as people have access to the means of production—land, raw materials, tools—there is no reason for them to sell theirlabour. They can still sell the product of their labour. – the tie between producers and the means of production must becut. Once denied access to the means of production, people must negotiate withthose who control the means of production for permission to use the land andtools and receive a wage in return. Those who control the means of production alsocontrol the goods that are produced, and so those who labor to produce themmust buy them back from those with the means of production. The severing of persons from the means ofproduction turns them not only into labourers but into consumers(Robbins 2002: 79). - Capitalist business cycles lead to worldwide economic depressions– The Great Global Depression (1873-1895)Of course there had been other economic crises(e.g. due to famine, war, and disease) but this financial collapse revealed thedegree of global economic integration The Culture of Capitalism: Nisha  Corporations use economic power (Capital) to create conditions in which profits increase at any means  Characterized by Corporate Libertarianism  Where the rights and freedoms of corporations are above those of individuals  Principles  Sustained Economic Growth as measures by gross national product (GNP)  ‘Free’ Market - markets are unrestrained by government. Leads to high profit and low human right  Economic Globalization - Achieved by removing barriers to the free flow of goods and money anywhere in the world  Increases economic efficiency, creates jobs, lowers consumer prices, increases consumer choice, increases economic growth, and is generally beneficial to almost everyone  Privatization moves functions and assets from governments to the private secto  Colonialism was mainly about extracting resources at any means so they can be invested as profits and capital and to extend powe  Europe extended their power into colonized lands  Under a capitalism regime, the goal is to extract as much labour from an employee in order to maximize the amount of products created which can be used to gain more income. In most cases, the male husband and/or father is the adult who joins the paid labour force. With the husband’s extraction of labour, he is forced to expel much of his energy, and it is up to his wife to replenish his energy by means of unpaid domestic labour, so that the next day he can be productive again.  Women’s domestic labour is appropriated by men, and becomes the essential to capitalism The Domestic Labour Debate: Khursheed Sadat 60s and 70s socialist feminists were questioning unwaged domestic labou, which included housework, childrearing and bearing- because unequal gender division, mostly women doing this work.The domestic labour debate was concerned to uncover the material basis of women's oppression, theorists sought to put women's lives at the heart of the workings of capitalism (which was rarely addressed in radical thought and social practice) - questioned concept of patriarchy, which predated capitalism- patriarchy at the heart of the problem.... (Week 3 slides) The Higgler : Mandeep Jajj is a market intermediary of buyers and sellers (traditionally of produce). A higgler has been a powerful figure in Afro-Caribbean history; these women symbolize local economic integrity and female independence. A ‘higgler’ would travel from town back into rural areas making commodities available and accessible. A ‘higglers’ importance was multi-faced. From days of slavery, the higgler was essential in establishing an internal marketing system that defined the region. Her role under slavery was profound both systematically and patriotically. Transporting food and making produce and herbs available. Her role was a particular expression of femininity. “The colourful higgler wearing a head tie, printed skirt represented Caribbean womanhood and nationhood. Higgler women represented an economic strategy for supplementing their low wages for a little extra way of making do. Economic Man: Belinda Zhang Economicman, this concept is drew from week 10, ZaloomCaitlin’s article, “Economic Men, In Outof the pits: traders and technology from Chicago to London.” And the authordescribes economic man is “aggressive, competitive, fiercely independent, andoften crude, and dramatizes taking profit from the hands of their friends andcolleagues”. One specific example Zaloom talks about in her article is traders.Their professional conduct creates a brash persona analyzing market trend andmaking money for their clients through trading floors, which are saturated withlanguage of violence, severe competition. Traders’ bodies and base desires areessential to the composition of the market. By participating in the market, thetrader become the materials of another sort of market, one Zaloom explains as a“explicitly embodied, located, and undeniably human.” Ideology of the housewife: Belinda Zhang Ideology of housewife, this concept is drew fromweek 1, Mies Maria’s article, “Dynamics of sexualdivisionof labour and capital accumulation: women lace workers of Narsapur”.Housewife ideology is about women sitting in the house. And from week 6lecture, slide #22-25, housewife ideology implies “a naturalization of thesocial division of labor between women and men. And this is the socialculturalfoundation on which the lace trade depends. Women’s lacework is regarded as aleisure activity rather than as productive labour and their earnings areregarded as supplemental rather than as essential income. This concept is also central to Mie’s work, becauseit reminds us the intersection of difference and capital that is expressed inthe gendered organization of transnational production cannot be reduced to asingle, unified logic, be it patriarchy or capitalism.” Interpellation: Tazrine Haque It is a primary mechanism of workplace control. Salzinger defines it as “the process whereby a subject is created through recognizing her or himself in another’s naming” (17). Interpellation works through implicit and explicit statements through meaningful practices as well as language. Salzinger sums up the significance of interpellation for her analysis: "In addressing workers through the trope of femininity, transnational managers create subjects they imagine to be preset. Envisioning subjectivity as fixed makes such processes invisible, thus making it impossible to see that femininity matters in global production not because it accurately describes a set of exploitable traits, but because it functions as a constitutive discourse which creates exploitable subjects" (21). Managers are able to establish workers relations on what they perceive to be a good female worker, who is docile, dexterous and cheap. Even before being hired the process of interpellation allows management to shape female (and male) workers into the type of worker they desire. So workers establish their identities based on how they are addressed by and interact with others. Or they can subconsciously start to contrast themselves to the people who were not addressed in a given way and develop their subjectivities based on their comparisons. The Chain of Care: Farnaz Hosseini The "chain of care" is a linear concatenation of bodies and feelings propelled by the migration of Third World women to the First World. Third World women are torn away from their biological families and forced to leave their children in the care of poorer women in the homeland, to take care of the progeny of modern working mothers of the first world. Therefore, the authors suggest, Third World women take on the burden of First World women's liberation from domesticity by providing emotional and physical labor needed at the homes of the latter. This situation, they argue, causes a "care drain" and a "global heart transplant," where the global domestic labor market siphons off affective energies away from the poor countries of the world as Third World women fracture households and leave families motherless and wifeless. Therefore, this "chain" is forged primarily through affective links constituted by biologically reproducing women of the First and Third Worlds and the displacement of their affective and physical labor from their biological families. The glue that keeps this chain together in a linear fashion is the heterosexualized bodies of both First and Third women while the fuel for the global dispersal of migratory domestic labor is normative maternal love. Therefore, the chain of care framework foregrounds the pathos of dislocated biological motherhood.we need to think of the chain of care not as a set of discreet relationships between worlds and bodies strung up in a teleological manner, but rather as a series of conflicting and diverse bonds between labor, emotions and corporeality that do not line up neatly in terms of gender binaries and normative familial arrangements. T Heteronormativity/Queer Theory: Warsan Jama Manalansan explores the increasingly heteronormative framing of gendered global migration. The term heterhormativity refers to discourses that express heterosexuality as a given instead of being one of many possibilities. In the context of a heternormative framing,heterosexuality is perhaps indirectly assumed or taken for granted. Portraying and constructing heterosexuality as normal has the effect to of constructing alternate possibilities as marginal or deviant. Critics of heteronormativity argue that it is oppressive, stigmatizing, marginalizing of perceived deviant forms of sexuality and gender, and makes self- expression more when the expression does not conform to the norm. Heternormative framing "privileges heterosexuality as normal and natural" and fosters a climate where LGBTQ people are discriminated against. Heteronormativity needs to be understood as a concept that reveals the expectations, demands and constraints produced when heterosexuality is taken as normative within a society. Manalansan as a feminist and queer studies scholar intent is to unsettle the seemingly logical arrangement and natural symmetry of this rather static formula that reads as follows: domestic = family = heterosexual woman = care and love. The neat symmetry of the "chain of care" theory lends itself to a precarious linearity that involuntarily constitutes narratives of modernist development founded on imperial designs and desires. Manalansan argues that the narratives and experiences of women and men (gay, lesbian, bisexual or heterosexual) as well as transgendered people (both male-to-female and female-to-male) among migrant domestic workers disrupt the neat synchronicity of the "chain of care." Reference Martin Manalansan Ideology of Work: WAITING FOR ANSWER The New International Division of Labour: Nisha Khan -Term coined during 1970’s/80’s with the drastic spike of Maquiladora programs - A spatial division of labour between underdeveloped area and developed areas, usually different in region and country that occurs when the process of production is no longer confined to national economies - Caused by globalization, neocolonialism and colonialism - Developed countries move their production to underdeveloped areas Global Industrial Shift - Developed countries are in search for the cheapest locations to manufacture and assemble components, and the developing world costs are substantially lower. (SeeFlexible Accumulation) - Labour control processes are fundamentally shaped aornd the gender of those hired, and gender’s importance increases as the search for cheap labour accelerates in response to technical advance -This is more than a simple change in placement in global trade and labour, this affects female bodies, as they are recruited and encouraged to take these low paying jobs - When the economy boom happened, third world women were taking away jobs that had been held of white male breadwinners, adding to how third world women view themselves, and how the west views them as well -Femininity is reproduced in factories. Neocolonialism : Nisha Khan - Rich, powerful states use economic, political or other informal means to control poorer, less powerful states, usually former dependent countries. -Most colonies have gained independence by the 60’s, and Colonialism is deemed irrelevant or ended -When colonial powers pulled out, they left the countries with shaky infrastructure, jobs that were useless (Since they were geared towards mother/colonizer land) - Neocolonialism still has a hold on the colony as it has left a scar on the country’s history - Similar to traditional colonialism, just not as direct -Connects with Week 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, - Anytime a developed nation extracts energy and/or resources from a developing nation, neocolonialism is in effect. Flexible Accumulation: Nisha Khan  Connected to Post-Fordism, that is, the restructuring of our Fordist society  A new system in which emphasizes the flexibility of production  Relies on the flexibility of labour processes, labour markets, products, and patterns of consumption.  New sectors of production, new ways of providing financial services, new markets, and, above all are created  This particular flexibility targets women and dev
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