question 3.doc

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Women and Gender Studies
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June Larkin

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Question 3 1. Discussion – how the activity addresses theories, frameworks, issues taken up in the course and also include references from course materials 2, Discussion: This activity addresses Readings (Petchesky, 2003) there is a failure of states to carry out their commitments such as better social protection through social security programs, health and safety regulations, day cares centers and accessible health care. This is because the state is caught between the debt and global market then come to not take accountability in ensuring basic health services like in the case of the African country depicted by the It’s my Life documentary. The state then sees privatization measures combined by vouchers (safety nets) as the best way to ensure human rights of universal access to basic health services. The free market systems are thus inherently opposing to health care as a human right, since human rights enforcement depends on reliable systems of public regulation and accountability. Thus 'universal access' is not intended to imply universal rights or universal coverage, since it is assumed that all people but the very poorest will be able to pay for these services in the market either through insurance planes or user fees - In the World Bank's conceptual model, preventive health care is a 'pure public good' (that is, not profitable); thus the state should invest in controlling infectious diseases through immunization and sanitation programs. In contrast, curative health care is a 'pure private good': 'if government does not foot the bill, all but the poorest will find ways to pay for care themselves' The Bank wants participation and empowerment of NGOs and the poor, but not social movements that challenge 'free markets' and privatization as systemically unjust, nor the responsibility of incorporating the 'voices of the poor' into its own health policies - It wants strong, reliable state institutions but fails to support the kinds of global redistributive measures (debt cancellation, 'Tobin taxes', TNC regulation, protective tariffs on key industries) that would be needed to provide the resource base and revenues for such institutions to be sustainable - In sum, global capitalism's prescription for health provision is a two-tiered •system in which the market becomes the source of most services for most People, while those who cannot afford to pay ('the most vulnerable') are left to the mercy of (often non-existent] 'safety nets' - Safety nets- as us has millions of uninsured the health care than becomes a commodity for many health consumers and safety net for the rest. Safety net is a health care that is vague, failure to specify timetables, beneficiaries, and only has minimum of meeting health care that becomes a matter of human rights - it assumes different standards and benefits for the poor and the rich creating two classes of social citizenship, and also disallows any democratic mechanisms of accountability regarding standards of quality and access. - the privatization comes to make supply and demand as a form profit becomes the ethic of governing distribution rather than the principles of human rights and social inclusion - being able to combine the concept of global public goods (which has a goal of developing macroeconomic framework for valuing and financing goods whose benefits reach across boarders, generations, and are underprovided by local and national governments. These are goods in which market has no interest in due to its inability to make it owned and use or transferred. These are oceans, universal access to essential medicines and condoms) and basic human rights(which are moral principles that set out certain standards of human beaviour and are protected as legal rights in national and international law. They are fundamental rights to which a person is entitled to on the basis of being a human being and thus becomes a universal to rights like health that are foundation of justice and peace in the world) to health necessities such as water, medicines, condoms and microbicides might create more resources if only we take them out of the market pricing and instead place them under public regulatory agencies. - Thus if women’s health groups or social movements like TAC want to create equal universal health system there needs to be a creation of transnational women's groups that engage with coalition with developmental and anti poverty organizations in advocating a variety of strategies to achieve a more just distribution of global resources. For insurance this includes debt cancellations and not just reliefs, national taxes on foreign direct investments linked to labour rights, and banning corporate tax to ensure revenue gathered from these measures are channeled into health, education, and poverty eradication (Petchesky, 2003) Colonialism as a framework for communicable disease for instance the idea of tropical illness- this means the separating the indigenous population who are physically hardy but biologically inferior from the colonizing population who are assumed to be biological superior but fragile to the tropical disease. Tropical medicine was interested in the health and benefit of the colonizers. This idea came from the assumption that the third world body is the location of diseases, (jan 23 lecture ) Adding colonialism to structural inequities is just one of the ways where inequities are built into the very structure of our society and social institutions - in terms of TAC we need to also consider social norm of the burden of care. This means that we also need to not only consider the vulnerability of women with HIV but we also need to think about the burden of care. For instance African women face a generation without grandparents and many children that are orphans who must care of their
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