WDW101Y1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Procedural Justice, Peer Pressure, Subculture

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
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UTSG
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Woodsworth College Courses
Course
WDW101Y1
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WDW210: Midterm
Multiple Choice:
Research highlighted in the Tyler Article suggests that improvements in the objective performance of
the police and courts
-have not led to higher levels of confidence in the courts or police
Research on the perceived legitimacy of the criminal justice system (Tyler Article) reveals that
-people are less likely to believe they have been profiled when the police treat them with
politeness and respect
-Fairness treatment (procedural justice) has a stronger impact on perceived legitimacy than
decision fairness
In their article for the Roots of Youth Violence Inquiry, Doob, Sprott and Webster found that:
-how the police are used (deployed) has more of an impact on crime than the number of officers
in the street
Lambrett, and his colleagues examined student attitude towards the police in 4 different countries:
these authors found that:
-Canadian students had more trust in police officers than Nigerian students
Research on police stress suggests that:
-police officers have higher rates of suicide and alcohol abuse than regular civilians
-organizational stressors have a more negative impact on police officers than the dangers of the
job
According to the article by Loftus, over the past few decades the nature of the police occupational
culture:
-has not changed because the nature of policing has not changed
Perrot and Kelloway examined data from a study of 129 RCMP constables and a control group of 60
municipal constables. These researchers found that:
-RCMP constables felt less in control and more psychological distress than municipal officers
According to Canadian correctional stats:
-the number of remand admissions has increased between 1982 and 2004
- More people are in prison awaiting trial in Canada than serving a sentence
Remand rates in Canada (per 100,000):
-are higher in Manitoba and Saskatchewan than Ontario
Short Answers:
1. 2 Factors- Macfralene that contribute to wrongful convictions in Canad
1) Tunnel Vision: This leads justice system participants to focus prematurely on a single suspect
2) Existence on environmental factors: predisposing circumstances that foster wrongful convictions in
the 1st place (ex. noble cause corruption)
2. Doob, Scott and Webster- impact does the presence of the police in schools have on youth crime
1) They can be programs that deal with the nature and quality of the school- improving schools,
improving youth experience with schools appears to be effective approach to dealing with crime
2) Providing contact with police in schools may improve youth`s view of the police
-But there was no evidence that they could find to suggest that police-school presence reduced crime
3. Adversial Systems of Criminal Justice: 2 Benefits and 2 limitations
Benefits
1. Clear division of roles and responsibilities
2. System is designed to hear evidence from both sides equally
Limitations:
1. Trials are very long and expensive- vast of defenders don’t have the opportunity for trial
2. Opposing sides often cooperate to promote system efficiency (ex. plea bargaining
4. Crime Control Model and Due Process Model: 2 goals each
Crime Control Model
1. Defer crime
2. Protecting citizens
Due Process Model
1. Protect the unbridled powers of the state
2. Promote fairness and equality in the justice system
5. 5 main functions of the police in Canada
1. Community Patrol: everyday surveillance of general population
2. Crime Investigation and Prosecution: preparing evidence for court, testifying etc.
3. Order Maintenance: traffic control, crowd control etc.
4. Social Service: respond to medical emergencies, assist crime victims etc.
5. Routine Patrol (Multitasking): enforce the laws deter crime through patrol
6. 2 conservative and 2 Liberal strategies for the increase effectiveness of the police
Conservatives:
1. Decrease rights of civilian suspects- ex. ex-convicts
2. Increase police numbers
Liberal:
1. Legalize drug use and other vice crimes
2. More focus on community crime prevention and community development
7. Abdollahi- 3 different types stress experienced by police officers
1. Occupational Stress: stressed caused by the police job itself (EX. encountering victims of violent
crimes- very stressful)
2. Organizational Stress: stressed caused by the inherent organizational stress (ex. too much paper
work)
3.Health Consequence of Police stress
8. 4 Characteristics of the Police Occupational Subculture
1. Pessimism and Cynical: negative thinking and cynicism towards the public is very common
2. Isolations: most officers’ feel isolated from the public- results in us vs them of thinking
3. Very Conservative (politically): they like the stats quoe
4.Loyal to their group: each officer is expected to remain loyal to their squad at all times
9. 2 ways that outlaw motorcycle gangs are similar to police organizations
1. Both groups are organized in a military or hierarchy fashion
2. Both groups have an oath of loyalty to their respected groups- expect high loyalty
10. 3 major factors that influence Police Discretion:
1. Citizen and Offender Characteristics: ex. age, sex, personal appearance
2. Situation Factors: ex. seriousness of the crime
3. System and Department Factors: ex. lack of system capacity to arrest
11. 4 factors that contribute to police corruption
1. Poor Pay: having low income may push officers to take shortcuts
2. Exposure to these opportunities: exposed to opportunities to be corrupt
3. Lack of Supervision: freedom to be corrupt
4. Sub-cultural process: such as peer pressure can make someone cave in
12. Hyrnewicz: 4 critical dimensions of civilian police review process
1. Public Agreement: civilian review boards aim to arrive at decisions that secure the broadest levels of
public agreement without either 1) prejudicing the active rights of any person or social group by the
decision 2) acting in the ways that are determinable to other interests and aspiration to such individuals
2. Democratic Decision Making: civilian boards are responsible for arriving at decisions that are
democratically constituted
3. Public Accountability: the agencies and community groups’ participants in the review process are
accountable to the public
4. Evaluation: provides vital addition to the review committees functions
13. Goldschimdt: 4 Rationalizations that police sometimes use to justify dishonesty
1. Denial of the victim: they blame the victim (person being arrested) and say he or she deserves it
2. Appeal to Higher Authority: they claim that their actions are simply for the common good (society)
3. Blame the courts as too lenient to the criminals
4. They claim to have special intuition on things like spotting a criminal
14. 4 objectives for Community Policing
1. Greater public legitimacy and acceptance
2. Increased public accountability
3. Increased effectiveness through innovation
4. Decrease of fear of crime and increase public safety
15. 4 major obstacles: Community Policing Programs
1. Defining the community- impossible
2. Lack of community participation
3. Lack of evaluation research
4. Conflict in heterogeneous communities- problematic when multiple groups have opposite goals and
views-police cannot satisfy them all

Document Summary

Have not led to higher levels of confidence in the courts or police. Has not changed because the nature of policing has not changed. Rcmp constables felt less in control and more psychological distress than municipal officers. The number of remand admissions has increased between 1982 and 2004. More people are in prison awaiting trial in canada than serving a sentence. Are higher in manitoba and saskatchewan than ontario. Canadian students had more trust in police officers than nigerian students. How the police are used (deployed) has more of an impact on crime than the number of officers in the street. Police officers have higher rates of suicide and alcohol abuse than regular civilians. Organizational stressors have a more negative impact on police officers than the dangers of the job. People are less likely to believe they have been profiled when the police treat them with politeness and respect.