WDW210 Midterm.docx

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WDW210: Midterm Multiple Choice: Research highlighted in the Tyler Article suggests that improvements in the objective performance of the police and courts -have not led to higher levels of confidence in the courts or police Research on the perceived legitimacy of the criminal justice system (Tyler Article) reveals that -people are less likely to believe they have been profiled when the police treat them with politeness and respect -Fairness treatment (procedural justice) has a stronger impact on perceived legitimacy than decision fairness In their article for the Roots of Youth Violence Inquiry, Doob, Sprott and Webster found that: -how the police are used (deployed) has more of an impact on crime than the number of officers in the street Lambrett, and his colleagues examined student attitude towards the police in 4 different countries: these authors found that: -Canadian students had more trust in police officers than Nigerian students Research on police stress suggests that: -police officers have higher rates of suicide and alcohol abuse than regular civilians -organizational stressors have a more negative impact on police officers than the dangers of the job According to the article by Loftus, over the past few decades the nature of the police occupational culture: -has not changed because the nature of policing has not changed Perrot and Kelloway examined data from a study of 129 RCMP constables and a control group of 60 municipal constables. These researchers found that: -RCMP constables felt less in control and more psychological distress than municipal officers According to Canadian correctional stats: -the number of remand admissions has increased between 1982 and 2004 - More people are in prison awaiting trial in Canada than serving a sentence Remand rates in Canada (per 100,000): -are higher in Manitoba and Saskatchewan than Ontario Short Answers: 1. 2 Factors- Macfralene – that contribute to wrongful convictions in Canad 1) Tunnel Vision: This leads justice system participants to focus prematurely on a single suspect 2) Existence on environmental factors: predisposing circumstances that foster wrongful convictions in the 1 place (ex. noble cause corruption) 2. Doob, Scott and Webster- impact does the presence of the police in schools have on youth crime 1) They can be programs that deal with the nature and quality of the school- improving schools, improving youth experience with schools appears to be effective approach to dealing with crime 2) Providing contact with police in schools may improve youth`s view of the police -But there was no evidence that they could find to suggest that police-school presence reduced crime 3. Adversial Systems of Criminal Justice: 2 Benefits and 2 limitations Benefits 1. Clear division of roles and responsibilities 2. System is designed to hear evidence from both sides equally Limitations: 1. Trials are very long and expensive- vast of defenders don’t have the opportunity for trial 2. Opposing sides often cooperate to promote system efficiency (ex. plea bargaining 4. Crime Control Model and Due Process Model: 2 goals each Crime Control Model 1. Defer crime 2. Protecting citizens Due Process Model 1. Protect the unbridled powers of the state 2. Promote fairness and equality in the justice system 5. 5 main functions of the police in Canada 1. Community Patrol: everyday surveillance of general population 2. Crime Investigation and Prosecution: preparing evidence for court, testifying etc. 3. Order Maintenance: traffic control, crowd control etc. 4. Social Service: respond to medical emergencies, assist crime victims etc. 5. Routine Patrol (Multitasking): enforce the laws deter crime through patrol 6. 2 conservative and 2 Liberal strategies for the increase effectiveness of the police Conservatives: 1. Decrease rights of civilian suspects- ex. ex-convicts 2. Increase police numbers Liberal: 1. Legalize drug use and other vice crimes 2. More focus on community crime prevention and community development 7. Abdollahi- 3 different types stress experienced by police officers 1. Occupational Stress: stressed caused by the police job itself (EX. encountering victims of violent crimes- very stressful) 2. Organizational Stress: stressed
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