Week 13.docx

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
Woodsworth College Courses
of 4
Week 13
5:35 PM
Federal/Provincial Differences- Week 10 Cont
Provincial Corrections: pre-trial detention and sentences less than two years
Federal Corrections: sentenced of 2 years or more
2005 Rate of Incarceration: Provincial 79 per 100,000: Federal 49 per 100,00); Total: 129 per
Prison Security Level
What factors determine the prison security level that an inmate will be assigned to- min, medium,
Acts as a reward system- if you behave well you can go down ranks of security
1)types of offences 2) Escape risk 3) Threat to Correctional Staff 4) Threat to other Inmates 5)
Threat to Prison Order 6) Threats to the inmate's Own safety- ex. Case of Ashley Smith- committed
Week 13: Current Issues in Canadian Corrections
US has highest incarceration Rates
Canada has a moderate incarceration Rates
International Trends:
Approx 9.8 mill people are currently incarcerated throughout the globe
Over half incarcerated in 3 countries: The US, China and Russia
60 percent of all nations have rates below 150/100 000
Many of the lowest rates of imprisonments are found in small countries - India and Nigeria are 2
exceptions to this trend
Prison populations grew in many parts of the world in the 1990s
Although there is a trend towards prison growth, there has been decreases in the prison
population in almost 1/3 of countries where movements have been monitored- Problem: different
systems don’t always focus on incarceration rates like Canada and US do
Explanations for US Prison Growth
Political influences- increases in each presidential election - promise tough on crime/longer
sentencing- resulting in exploitations of prison growth during election times
Felon Disenfranchisement- when you are convicted of a felony you can never vote again - reason
for this is to eliminate minority vote
Media- public opinion- Fear of Crime
Budget and Resources -economy has changed to service- small communities now want prisons in
today's society - 1. to create jobs 2. influences transfer payments - inmate is accounted for your
local population
Special Interest and Advocacy Groups- 3 strikes you are out legalisation in Cali
Economic Motives
Privatization- idea that if you have an economic motive in an industry will push for incarnation
because money is to be made
Radicalized Fears- dividing rich from poor, worries about riots, murder have confirmed increase in
incraration, the people with the most fears want increase in imprisonment then liberals
Media Influences
Tough on crime - focus on serious crime
The media is prone to use high profile cases and exaggerates their prevalence in society
This can influence both public opinion and politics
Death Penalty and Corporal Punishment
Unrelated to level of development or civilization- ex. Us and China
Strongly related to economic inequality- death penalty keeps people disfranchised
Strongly related to regional culture and religion- higher rates of Christian view in these areas
China executes more people that any other nation followed by Middle East
The number of executions in the United States is declining
Problems with International Comparisons
Differences in counting procedures , definitions and methods crime
The way prison population is measured
Variable policies and criminal justice procedures
Subjective nature of punitive sentencing
To return to one's original state - not working for preventing crime
To Cure- the correct in corrections
The idea that an offender is fundamentally flawed or broken
The idea that flaws can be corrected with appropriate treatment
Public Support for Rehabilitation
Early visions of rehabilitation dominated by the clergy and the idea of moral/spiritual harm
Development of sociology, psychology and criminology contributed to the secularization of the
rehab movement
Rehabilitation through education, employment and psychological programming - 40s and 60s
Nothing Works- Robert- does not improve - 1974 - used by conservatives need harsh punishments
Some things work- right period of time, right inmate - 2001
Some treatments programs are effective with some offenders some of the time
The issues of risk, need and responsively
The difficulties of measuring effectiveness
Should recidivism be offence specific
Why Treatment Does Not Always Work
Artificial- in prison settings
Employment training programs not suited of the realties of modern economy- technology, service,
still based on manufacture
Raises expectations of offenders
No follow up programs (aftercare) in the community
Does not target the specific needs of individual offenders - a cookie cuter approach - related to
the black guy guest
Cant overcome the stigmatization of a criminal record
Cant overcome the impact of associating with other criminals
Lack of family/community supports upon release
Unmotivated offenders (resistance to change)
Cultural, religious and language barriers
Community Corrections: Evaluation Challenges
Difficult to find an appropriate control group- people who end up in prison are often very different
than people who receive community sanctions
Almost an exclusive focus on recidivism
Few long term follow up studies
Evaluation Results; The Pros
Traditional probation and parole strategies much cheaper then incarceration
Little difference in overall recidivism rates
Allows offenders to keep jobs and purse education/training opportunities
Allows offenders to maintain relationships with their family/friends
Rehabilitation- when offered- may work better in a community setting
Offenders do feel pain when they are given community punishments
The costs of community corrections are increasing
The problem of net widening
Rehabilitation treatment is rarely provided
Probation/Parole officers are over-worked
Public hostililty
Sometimes community corrections do not prevent further crime
Why is the Cost of Community Corrections Increasing
Larger caseloads (net-widening)
Longer community sentences
Greater levels of surveillance
Improved technology (electronic, monitoring, drug testing)
Intermediate sanctions increase the probability that offenders will eventually be returned to the
prison on breach of condition charges
Privatization of Corrections
Myth- privatization is new
Private prisons were the norm in early correctional history
Fell out of favour in the early 20th century (seen as a conflict of the public interest)
Recent return to the private prison model- but private (for profit) companies have always had an
interest in the business of punishment
Private Interests in Public Prisons
Prison construction and maintenance
Clothing, uniforms, furniture, etc
Security Technology
Prison services (telephone, food services, canteens, luxury items etc)
Rehabilitation services
Prison labour
Argument for Privatization
Free enterprise creates competition and innovation. Public bureaucracies create stagnation,
Private Prisons will prove punishment services at a dramatically low cost
Private prisons will provide superior quality services

Document Summary

Provincial corrections: pre-trial detention and sentences less than two years. 2005 rate of incarceration: provincial 79 per 100,000: federal 49 per 100,00); total: 129 per. Federal corrections: sentenced of 2 years or more. What factors determine the prison security level that an inmate will be assigned to- min, medium, max. Acts as a reward system- if you behave well you can go down ranks of security. 1)types of offences 2) escape risk 3) threat to correctional staff 4) threat to other inmates 5) Threat to prison order 6) threats to the inmate"s own safety- ex. Approx 9. 8 mill people are currently incarcerated throughout the globe. Over half incarcerated in 3 countries: the us, china and russia. 60 percent of all nations have rates below 150/100 000. Many of the lowest rates of imprisonments are found in small countries - india and nigeria are 2 exceptions to this trend. Prison populations grew in many parts of the world in the 1990s.