WDW205H Midterm Theory Review

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University of Toronto St. George
Woodsworth College Courses
Breese Davies

st October 21 , 2012 WDW205H MIDTERM THEORY REVIEW Choice Theories Theory Major Premise Strengths Rational Choice Law-violating behavior is an event that Explains why high-risk youths occurs after offenders weigh information do not constantly engage in on their personal needs and the delinquent acts. It is not situational factors involved in the limited by class or other social difficulty and risk of committing a crime variables. Routine Activities Crime and delinquency are a function of Can explain fluctuations in the presence of motivated offenders, the crime and delinquency rates. availability of suitable targets, and the Shows how victim behaviour absence of capable guardians influences criminal choice. General Deterrence People will commit crime and Shows the relationship delinquency if they perceive that the between crime and benefits outweigh the risks. Crime is a punishment. function of the severity, certainty, and speed of punishment Specific Deterrence If punishment is severe enough, Provides a strategy to reduce criminals will not repeat their illegal acts crime Incapacitation Keeping known criminals out of Recognizes the role circulation will reduce crime rates opportunity plays in criminal behaviour. Provides a solution to chronic offending. Biological and Psychological Theories Biology Theory Major Premise Strengths Biochemical Crime, especially violence, is a function of Explains irrational violence, diet, vitamin intake, hormonal imbalance, shows how the environment or food allergies interacts with personal traits to influence behaviour Neurological Criminals and delinquents often suffer Explains irrational violence by brain impairment, as measured by the EEG. pinpointing the medical and ADHD & minimal brain dysfunction are physiological basis for related to antisocial behaviour behaviour Genetic Criminal traits and predispositions are Explains why only a small inherited. The criminality of parents can percentage of youth in a high- predict the delinquency of children crime area become chronic offenders Evolutionary As the human race evolved, traits and Explains high violence rates characteristics became ingrained. Some of and aggregate gender these traits make people aggressive and differences in the same rate st October 21 , 2012 predisposed to commit crime Psychological Theory Major Premise Strengths Psychodynamic The development of the unconscious Explains the onset of crime personality early in childhood influences and why crime and drug abuse behaviour for the rest of a person’s life. cut across class lines Criminals have weak egos and damaged personalities Behavioral People commit crime when they model Explains the role of significant their behaviour after others they see being others in the crime process. rewarded for the same acts. Behaviour is Family and media can reinforced by rewards and extinguished influence crime and violence by punishment Cognitive Individual reasoning processes influence Shows why criminal behavior. Reasoning is influenced by the behaviour patterns change way people perceive their environment ov
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