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Woodsworth College Courses
John Vervaeke

Young Offenders Study Notes Young people have always been involved in crime smaller and pettier ie property crime The good old days never existed no way of knowing crime rates from decades ago thColonial Era19 Century children as possessions subject to parental authority thConfederation20 Century individuals in own right in need of state protection parens patriae th20 CenturyNow subjects with entitlements and rights best interests of childYouth advocates children as victims in need of protection and no issues with youth and YOA social workers lawyers etc LawandOrder children accused of crime as the enemy police security shop owners etcYoung offenders as super predatorsget toughFormal vs Informal processing cases handled in court vs out of courtHistoricallyPreConfederation children and youth treated same as adults thth17 and 18 centuries not very documented crimes of petty natureEuropean society no rights for children at the mercy of adultsKids under 7 not capable of crime but still punished as adults if convictedColonial period adults were dependent upon child labour for economic successlack of authority Fur trade seigneurial system of inheritance oldest child inherits others kids had to look elsewhereParents promotion of immigration to the New World many parents died on the trip overth19 century children shipped over to Canada as servants those that escaped had to fendGirls having to service employersto leave would to be forfeit letter of reference No juvenile jails kids in adult prisons mostly girls 1857 Act for Establishing Prisons for Young Offendersseparate institutions for youth Victorian behaviour and wellbeing of youth became a subject of concernHalifax City Mission prostitution liqueur trade infanticide biggest problemsParents viewed as immoral and unable to control their kidsConcerned for young girls on streets not for safety but for moralityRehabilitative philosophy return evil with good child savers prisons as schools for crimePostVictorian youth offenders were separated from adults 1908 Juvenile Delinquents Act made juvenile delinquency a legal statusWelfarebased juvenile justice systemparens patriae parent of the countryViolation of federal provincial or municipal law not necessarily criminal by persons under 16Cases to be handled summarily outside of court separate detention facilitiesProbation a common sentence officer to reform child and whole family quickly became policingStill opposing sides to whether youth should be sentenced to reformatories Parents not lacking disciplineauthority but being immoralneglectful Opposition not punitive enoughpotential abuses to childrens rights lack of autonomyStatus offenses not criminal if engaged in by adult lumping together all childyouth offensesYoung people who were not breaking the law were being punished in the same manner no set terms for sentences problems with due process 1984 Young Offenders Act youth crime increased because more youth were brought into courtMarginalized youth dependent upon adults for survival economic liabilitydenied adulthoodYouth in state of dependency requiring guidance as well as supervision and controlLimited accountability youth held accountable but not as much as adultsSpecial needs immaturity and dependency relative to adults addressed to offending behaviourPrinciple of diversion measures other than court processing if protection of society isnt compromised Only for first offenders and those convicted of minor offensesRight to legal representation and right to know that and other rights parents not covered under rights
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