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Midterm

BIOL 351 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ocean Acidification, Wave Power, Immune SystemPremium

9 pages75 viewsSpring 2018

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 351
Professor
Beaulieu
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 9 pages of the document.
Midterm #2 Study Notes
Biomass/ Renewable Energy
What is the main issue for Earth’s
atmosphere?
Carbon!
Carbon cycle takes millions of
years to turn and burning fossil
fuels short circuits and brings
long buried carbons into
atmosphere
What is carbon leading to?
Global warming and ocean
acidification
What is renewable energy?
Energy from a source that is not
depleted by energy extraction or is
quickly replenished
Sources of renewable energy:
1. Solar energy
2. Tidal and wave power
3. Wind Power → can be on or off shore
4. Hydroelectric power
5. Geothermal Energy → material from
Earth’s interior and decay of
radioactive isotopes
6. Raw biomass and biofuel → ex.
Burning wood
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Tidal/Wave Power
Reliable, predictable and “never runs
out”, tide has slowed down Earth’s
rotation
Effect on marine life- turbines kill,
acoustic issues, high cost
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Hydroelectric power
Numerous- flexible, cost is low, useful
for flood control
Generates a lot of greenhouse gases,
environmental damage, displacement
of people
What are the problems with sources of
renewable energy?
1. Low energy density → wind or solar
has to be dispersed
2. Can be too expensive to elicit much
market interest
** Externalities = cost or benefit from an
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economic transaction to parties not involved
in the transaction
What is photosynthesis and what do you
need?
Plants use light and convert it to
chemical energy. You need Light,
water CO2, and minerals to create
glucose.
5% of light energy captured is storable
chemical energy
6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6
+ 6O2.
Explain the steps of photosynthesis.
1. Light creates two high energy
unstable molecules ATP and NADPH
2. ATP and NADPH force hydrogen
atoms onto CO2 producing a small
sugar
What is raw biomass?
Any material from organisms that is
burned for energy without extensive
processing → mostly cellulose and
lignin molecules found in plant cell
walls
Sources of raw biomass
Wood, pellets, corn, peanuts, peat
Products of pyrolysis → thermal
decomposition of organic material in
absence of oxygen
Biomethanol can be produced
by pyrolysis
Advantages of burning raw biomass
Minimal processing
Lot of fuel is garbage and essentially
free
Limitations of raw biomass
Lots of CO2 produced → assumed to
be “carbon neutral”
Not necessarily efficient
The practise of growing trees just to
cut them down for fuel is questionable
What are alcohols and how can we get
alcohol fuels from crops?
Alcohols are organic molecules with
an hydroxyl group (OH) → ethanol
used in gasoline
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Can use stalk → fermentation
Yeast cells can produce ethanol
instead of going through cellular
respiration and able to ferment in
presence of oxygen
Special yeast on grapes
What are the problems with biofuels from
crops?
Rising food prices
Carbon counting suggest that
production of biomethanol requires a
lot of greenhouse gas emissions
What is diesel fuel?
Biodiesel and green diesel
Diesel fuel is from crude oil and differs
in combustion properties (8-20
carbons while gas has 4-12 carbons)
Diesel can auto-ignite
How do you get diesel fuel from
photosynthesis?
Some plants produce seeds high in oil
(canola, soybean) and carries a lot of
carbon in form of oil
Use algae farms → have lipid bodies
that contain oil
Methanol must be added in alkaline
conditions to get biodiesel
Can use vegetable oil as fuel!
Artificial photosynthesis
Disadvantages of biodiesel
Prices of oil
Food vs fuel
Carbon emissions
Effects on environment
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