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Bio 400 Timeline.docx

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University of Victoria
BIOL 400

Bio 400 Timeline Imhotep (2700-2600 BC)  Egyptian physician and architect  May have written surgical texts  May be source of Asclepios (Greek god of healing) Edwin Smith Papyrus (1600 BC; may go back to Imhotep)  Oldest medical treatise  Natural treatments (no magic) Ebers Papyrus (1550 BC)  Magical and natural advice  ~ 700 drugs nd The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Cannon (2 century BC)  ancient China  illness natural causes  disruption of chi; defined along meridians  imbalance of yin and yang o yin – female o yang – male  body is microcosm, world macrocosm o nature’s Five Phases (elements) Thales of Miletus (650-580 BC)  Earth is disc surrounded on all sides by water  Unity of matter  Invented science Empedocles (492-432 BC)  Originator of theory of four elements o Fire, air, earth, water  Think with blood  Animals arose from the ground Democritus (460-360 BC)  Foremost ancient philosopher of atomism  Brain organ of thought, heart = courage, liver = sensuality  No divine beings Hippocrates (460-361 BC)  Magical and religious medicine  Secular healers called Asclepiads  Born on Cos – moved to Balkans and Asia Minor  Practiced on Cos and Thessaly  Hippocratic Corpus (420-370 BC)  Rejected supernatural explanations and causes  High ethical standards  Hippocratic method o Observe all o Study patient, not disease o Evaluate honestly o Assist nature Aristotle (384-322 BC)  Studied philosophy at Plato’s Academy  Studied marine biology on Lesbos  Tutored Alexander the Great  Established the Lyceum in Athens (334 BC)  Died in exile on Chalcis  Matter is potential; form gives matter reality  Reproduction o Eidos – form-giving  Principle in semen  Warm, fully cooked o Catamenia – material on which form or idea would act  Menstrual blood  Cooler, half cooked  Teleology o Nature does nothing without a (divine) purpose  Founded natural history  Described and named ‘Aorta’  Heart was origin of soul and intelligence The Library and Museum of Alexandria  Founded by Alexander the Great Hypatia of Alexandria  Philosopher, mathematician  Last known scholar of Museum of Alexandria Herophilus (330-260 BC)  Physician, anatomist, physiologist at Alexandria  Dissections  Connections between brain, spinal cord, and nerves  Veins and arteries carry blood  Tied heart rate to health Euclid (325 BC -??)  Geometry  Author of The Elements Erasistratus (310-250 BC)  Vital pneuma converted into animal spirits in brain, which are carried to muscle  Blood and pneuma seep into tissues Aristarchos (310-230 BC)  Proposed heliocentric model of solar system Archimedes of Syracuse (287-212 BC)  Physist and mathematician Eratosthenes of Cyrene (276-195 BC)  Geographer  Knew world was round; measured circumference Heron (AD 10-70)  Engineer  Invented steam engine Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79)  Died in Vesuvius  Wrote Natural History st Celsus (1 century AD)  Wrote De Medicinia  First medical book printed 1478 Ptolemy (AD 90-168)  Astronomy  Explained planetary motions (epicycles) Galen of Pergamon (AD 130-200)  Most influential medical writer of all time (Greek)  Favoured by Marcus Aurelius  Teleological view of human body  Dissections of animals  Voice controlled by laryngeal nerves to brain  Arteries contain blood  Kidney makes urine  Gut peristalsis  Cut spinal cord to see effects  Doctrine of Temperments (humours, fluids) o Sanguine, phlegmatic, etc.  Balance humours  Surgery  Drug mixtures o Created universal antidote Golden Age of Science in Islamic World (8 – 13 centuries)  Encouraged the development of science o Islamic expansion, ancient learning, openness to other culture o Muhammed (570-632) and Quran encouraged inquiry and education o Wealth and unity supported secular intellectual class  Paper making plant in Baghdad (794)  Alchemy Jabir (721-815)  Glassware  Distillation Avicenna (980-1037)  Greatest Islamic intellectual of all  Cannon of Medicine o Anatomy and physiology based of Galen St. Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)  Precedes scholasticism  Religious mystic  Healer and naturalist  European nd Frederick 2 of Hohenstaufen (1194-1250)  Holy Roman Emperor (1220-1250)  Established University of Naples (1224)  Chartered Salerno Medical College (1231) o Allowed women in school (Southern Italy) Nafis (?? – 1288)  Proposed pulmonary circulation  Did dissections Public hospitals in Baghdad, Damascus, and Cairo Albertus Magnus (1200-1280)  Doctor Universalis  Alchemist and biologist  Foremost medical naturalist  Pupil St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) o Greatest of the scholastics Roger Bacon (1214-1292)  Cleric  Astrology, crystals, nuterology  Observation and hypothesis (experiment) Universities flourished during scholastic period  Grew out of church schools in Charlemagne (768-814)  Continuity between medieval and modern universities o Independence of self governance o Laws of town didn’t apply o Could think and express things Johannes Gutenberg  Printing press (1440-1450s) Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519)  Finished few projects  Anatomy as teenage artist  Incorporation of anatomy into art  Fossils were remains  Geology  Interested in birds and flight  Serial sections of the eye (tomography) Coppernicus (1473-1543)  Astronomy  On The Motions of Heavenly Bodies (1543) o Heliocentric model of solar system o Sun was center of universe  Heard of Aristarchos?? Luca Ghini (1490-1556)  Credited with invention of herbarium Paracelsus (1493-1541)  Name means ‘better than Celsus’  Rejected academia  Worked with alchemists (Trithemias)  Studied metallurgy  Private physician o Called himself ‘Double Doctor’  Taught medicine at University of Basel  Appointed City Physician of Basel o ‘secret of life’ was poop o publicly burned works of Galen and Avicenna o thrown out of Basel  admired Hippocrates  Iatrochemistry – chemistry should be central understanding of human function and medicine  ‘Archeus’ supervises chemical processes in body  specific chemicals for each disease  Doctrine of Signatures – medicinial suggestions  Syphilis o Mercury o 1530 – wrote treatise on syphilis o 1909 – alternative therapy – arsenic  Laudamum – alcohol solution of opium  Sweet Vitriol – ethyl ether st o October 30, 1846 ‘ether day’ – 1 time ether was used in surgery  Thought like mystic, chemist and biochemist Realdo Colombo (1510-1559)  Anatomist  Successor of Vesalius at Padua  Presented clear statement of pulmonary circulation Michael Servetus (1511-1553)  Theologian, physician, anatomist  Dissections for Jacob Sylvius the Galenist  Restoration of Christianity (1553) o Pulmonary circulation  Nafis?? Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)  First accurate book of anatomy o On The Fabric of The Human Body (1543)  ~ 250 illustrations  denounced by Galenists  anatomy better, but not physiology  Pharmacist  Studied at Paris and Louvain o Dissections  Denounced Galen’s works o 1541 – the moment modern science began  taught at Padua o dissections in class o skeleton o exposed many corpses at once o large diagrams of human body Konrad Gesner (1516-1565)  Swiss botanist and linguist  Wrote Historia Animalium Girolamo Fabrici (1537-1619)  On The Valves in The Veins (1603) o Preventing backflow Scientific Revolution (1543-1700)  Math, physics, astronomy Medieval technology stimulated science in 15 and 16 centuries nd  Mechanical computer (2 century BC)  Waterwheels, windmills  Screw press o Make wine o Original printing press  Iron plough  Gun powder Church lost control of science The Reformation (1517 onward) Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)  Astronomy, physics, math, philosophy of science, scientific method  Teacher of Roger Bacon  First to use telescope  Compound microscope (1609) Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)  Astronomy  Planetary orbits are elliptical  ‘watershed’ Jan Baptista Van Helmont (1579-1644)  Flemish mystic, physician, chemist  Iatrochemistry  Conservation of matter o Dissolved metal in acids – combined weight didn’t change  Everything was made of water  Willow tree experiment o Weight of soil didn’t change over 5 years but tree did  Thought there were many types of airs o Charcoal experiment  Burned charcoal, collected ash and vapours  Flame couldn’t survive on vapours  ‘Spiritus Sylvester’  thought digestion, alcohol fermentation, and wood burning were all same process: fermentation William Harvey (1578-1657)  student of Fabrici’s  privately concluded that blood circulates  On the Movement of the Heart and Blood (1628) o Questions concerning Galenic physiology  Vivisections  Established blood circulation in pulmonary and systemic circuits  First ‘functional’ biology Microscope invented around 1590  Supposed inventors: Hans Lippershey, and Hans & Zacharias Janssen o Nobody has solid claim to invention  Earliest had 10x Rene Descartes (1596-1650)  Mechanicism  Involved physics and engineering o Organisms are mechanisms like clocks  Brain contained transformed pneuma of animal spirit Giovanni Borelli (1608-1697)
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