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BIOL 400 Study Guide - Final Guide: Stratigraphy, Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve, Wisdom Tooth

Course Code
BIOL 400
Study Guide

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Evolution of Evolution:
- Empedocles (492-432 BC)
o Animals have evolved over time from bizarre ancestors. Originally,
separate limbs, torsos and heads arose frm the Earth and then
combined at random.
- Aristotle (384-322 BC)
o Scale of nature
Most imperfect to perfect formed organisms/matter
Not evolution scale but scale of form
o Knew natural groups existed
Didn’t use this to classify animals though
- Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (1194-1250)
o Interested in zoology of birds
o His book one of the only good contributions from medieval times for
The Art of Falconry
Zoology about birds
Extremely extensive
Based on personal observation
- Buffon (1707-1788)
o Buffons Law: different regions that have similar environments wil
have different plants and animals
o The interior mold of an animal is unchangeable
o The outside the interior mould of an animal limited adaptive change is
o Lack of intermediate animals made him reject the theory of a common
o Buffon and the arrow of time
Epoch of nature – predicted seven periods in the history of
Earths temperature is an indication of its age
Calculated that the Earth was made 75,000 years ago\
o Ignored genesis‼! Ya dood u know wats up
- Obstacles to evolution
o Essentialism
Organisms exist in their ideal forms and do not vary over time
o Everyday experience show us generational continuity
Not radical discontinuity
o Literal interpretataion of religious text can lead to rejection of science
o Natural theology
o Incomplete fossil record
o The plentitude principle: all the species that can exist do exist
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