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Midterm

BIOL 459 Midterm: BIOL 459: BIOL 459 Disease Control

6 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 459
Professor
Roy Real

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Topic 8: Disease Control Antimicrobials
Difference between antibiotics and
antimicrobial drugs?
Antibiotics are substances produced
by a microbe that in small amounts,
inhibits another microbe
Antimicrobial drugs are synthetic
substance that interfere with the
growth of microbes
What is Chemotherapy?
The use of chemicals to treat a disease
History of chemotherapy:
1990- Hata discovers Salvarsan
(arsphenamine) which if 1st effective
medicinal treatment for syphilis
Ehrlich popularizes concept of magic
bullet
1928- Fleming discovers penicillin
1932- Prontosil red dye used for strep
infections
1940- First clinical trials of penicillin
What is a current problem regarding
antibiotics?
More antibiotic resistance
Some common sources of antibiotics
Bacillus subtilis
(Gram-positive rod)
Streptomyces
(Actinomycetes)
Penicillium and Cephalosporium
(Fungi)
What is the difference between bactericidal
and bacteriostatic?
Bactericidal kill microbes directly while
bacteriostatic only prevent microbes from
growing
How do antimicrobials drugs act upon the
microbe?
1. Inhibit cell wall synthesis
2. Inhibit protein synthesis
3. Inhibition of nucleic acid
replication/transcription
4. Injure the plasma membrane
5. Inhibit essential metabolite synthesis
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Penicillins prevent the synthesis of
peptidoglycan
Inhibition of protein synthesis
Target bacterial 70S ribosomes
Chloramphenicol, erythromycin and
streptomycin, tetracyclines
Injuring the plasma membrane
Polypeptide antibiotics change
membrane permeability
Antifungal drugs combine w/
membrane sterols
Inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis
Interfer w/ DNA replication and transcription
Inhibiting the synthesis of essential
metabolites
Antimetabolites compete w/ normal
substrates for an enzyme
ex) sulfanilamide competes w/ PABA, which
stops synthesis of folic acid
Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis
Penicillin
Contain a B-lactam ring
Prevents cross-linking of
peptidoglycans
Natural penicillin from cultures
G is injected, V is oral
Semisynthetic penicillins
Contain chemically added side
chains → resistance to
penicillinases
Penicillinase-resistant penicillins
Extended-spectrum penicillins
Penicillins plus B-lactamase inhibitors
Carbapenems
Substitute C for an S and add
double bond; broad spectrum
ex) Primaxin
Monobactam
Synthetic; single ring instead
of B-lactam; low toxicity; works
against certain gram-negatives
ex) Aztreonam
Cephalosporins
Works similar to penicillins but
B-lactam is different
Polypeptide antibiotics
Bacitracin is topical and works
against gram-positives
Vancomycin is the last line
against antibiotic-resistant
MRSA
Antimycobacterial antibiotics
Isoniazid
Inhibits the mycolic acid
synthesis in mycobacteria

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Description
Topic 8: Disease Control Antimicrobials Difference between antibiotics and Antibiotics are substances produced antimicrobial drugs? by a microbe that in small amounts, inhibits another microbe Antimicrobial drugs are synthetic substance that interfere with the growth of microbes What is Chemotherapy? The use of chemicals to treat a disease History of chemotherapy: 1990- Hata discovers Salvarsan (arsphenamine) which if 1st effective medicinal treatment for syphilis Ehrlich popularizes concept of magic bullet 1928- Fleming discovers penicillin 1932- Prontosil red dye used for strep infections 1940- First clinical trials of penicillin What is a current problem regarding More antibiotic resistance antibiotics? Some common sources of antibiotics Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive rod) Streptomyces (Actinomycetes) Penicillium and Cephalosporium (Fungi) What is the difference between bactericidal Bactericidal kill microbes directly while and bacteriostatic? bacteriostatic only prevent microbes from growing How do antimicrobials drugs act upon the 1. Inhibit cell wall synthesis microbe? 2. Inhibit protein synthesis 3. Inhibition of nucleic acid replication/transcription 4. Injure the plasma membrane 5. Inhibit essential metabolite synthesis Inhibition of cell wall synthesis Penicillins prevent the synthesis of peptidoglycan Inhibition of protein synthesis Target bacterial 70S ribosomes Chloramphenicol, erythromycin and streptomycin, tetracyclines Injuring the plasma membrane Polypeptide antibiotics changemembrane permeability Antifungal drugs combine w/ membrane sterols Inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis Interfer w/ DNA replication and transcription Inhibiting the synthesis of essential Antimetabolites compete w/ normal metabolites substrates for an enzyme ex) sulfanilamide competes w/ PABA, which stops synthesis of folic acid Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis Penicillin Contain a B-lactam ring Prevents cross-linking of peptidoglycans Natural penicillin from cultures G is injected, V is oral Semisynthetic penicillins Contain chemically added side chains resistance to penicillinases Penicillinase-resistant penicillins Extended-spectrum penicillins Penicillins plus B-lactamase inhibitors
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