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BIOL 459 Midterm: BIOL 459: BIOL 459 Disease Control

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BIOL 459
Roy Real

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Topic 8: Disease Control Antimicrobials Difference between antibiotics and Antibiotics are substances produced antimicrobial drugs? by a microbe that in small amounts, inhibits another microbe Antimicrobial drugs are synthetic substance that interfere with the growth of microbes What is Chemotherapy? The use of chemicals to treat a disease History of chemotherapy: 1990- Hata discovers Salvarsan (arsphenamine) which if 1st effective medicinal treatment for syphilis Ehrlich popularizes concept of magic bullet 1928- Fleming discovers penicillin 1932- Prontosil red dye used for strep infections 1940- First clinical trials of penicillin What is a current problem regarding More antibiotic resistance antibiotics? Some common sources of antibiotics Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive rod) Streptomyces (Actinomycetes) Penicillium and Cephalosporium (Fungi) What is the difference between bactericidal Bactericidal kill microbes directly while and bacteriostatic? bacteriostatic only prevent microbes from growing How do antimicrobials drugs act upon the 1. Inhibit cell wall synthesis microbe? 2. Inhibit protein synthesis 3. Inhibition of nucleic acid replication/transcription 4. Injure the plasma membrane 5. Inhibit essential metabolite synthesis Inhibition of cell wall synthesis Penicillins prevent the synthesis of peptidoglycan Inhibition of protein synthesis Target bacterial 70S ribosomes Chloramphenicol, erythromycin and streptomycin, tetracyclines Injuring the plasma membrane Polypeptide antibiotics changemembrane permeability Antifungal drugs combine w/ membrane sterols Inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis Interfer w/ DNA replication and transcription Inhibiting the synthesis of essential Antimetabolites compete w/ normal metabolites substrates for an enzyme ex) sulfanilamide competes w/ PABA, which stops synthesis of folic acid Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis Penicillin Contain a B-lactam ring Prevents cross-linking of peptidoglycans Natural penicillin from cultures G is injected, V is oral Semisynthetic penicillins Contain chemically added side chains resistance to penicillinases Penicillinase-resistant penicillins Extended-spectrum penicillins Penicillins plus B-lactamase inhibitors
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