BIOL 459 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ignaz Semmelweis, Genetic Recombination, Extrachromosomal Dna
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Basic Concepts of Epidemiology
Starting from slide 32
What are healthcare-associated
● They are acquired while receiving
treatment in a health-care facility
● Known as nosocomial infections
○ 1 in 25 ppl affected
How do you get HAIs?
1. Microorganisms in environment
2. Weakened state of host
○Comprised host: individual
who is not resistant to
infection b/c of disease,
therapy, burns etc.
3. Chain of transmission in hospital
What are emerging infectious diseases?
● New, increasing in incidence,
show a potential increase in near
future, or re-emerging.
● Most zoonotic, viral, and likely
vector-born (transmitted by
What are contributing factors in emerging
● Genetic recombination → avian flu
● Evolution of new strain → V.
● Use of antibiotics/ pesticides →
leads to antibiotic resistant strains
● Changes in weather→ Hantavirus:
associated w/ rodents in the States
● Modern transportation→ West Nile
Virus in NY
● Ecological disasters, war,
infection) due to Earthquakes
● Animals → Lyme Disease
● Public Health Failure → Diphtheria
Important people in Epidemiology
● John Snow (1848-1849)
→ identified reservoir of cholera in
● Ignaz Semmelweis (1846-1848)
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