Every Lecture Geog 274 Duffus

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Environmental Studies
ES 200
David Duffus

09/01/2013 Biogeography-distribution of living things – animals, plants, single cells etc -differential survivorship- changing the colour of species through selection (predation pressure) -Von Humbolt- founder of biogeo – wrote about the relationships between soil, plants and climate and how they interacted to create a landscape -3 principles: -endemic- all things are limited to a range -organisms have distinct patterns of occurrence -analogue species- same function in different location -Charles Lyell-geologist- earth older than 4004 years-used strata of different rock types -Joseph Hooker- botanist- got Darwin to collect plants for him-Darwin used farmers for selective breeding and hybridization -Gregor Mendel-monk- showed consistency through hybridization- info moved – flower colours -Alfred Russel Wallace- biogeographer- Borneo’s Rivers- marsupials (pouch) and eutherans (placental)- sent manuscript about natural selection to Darwin -Thomas Huxley “Darwin’s Bulldog”-supported Darwin- doctor -fitness- how many young they produce -trait- how a species appears -business- how it acts -convergeant evolution- similarities in form from environment and evolution- dolphin, shark, ethniosay all streamline but look different 16/01/2013 -cervids- have antlers; bovids- horns; -determined event-the was a cause resulting in an effect -stochastic- event- cannot be predicted – random- unexplained -population growth is a driver of population density and distribution -Assumption of Population Growth: -no I or E -constant B and D -no genetic structure- all reproducers are equal -no age/size structure -no time lags -Malthusian doctrine- If your population continues to grow, it’ll outstrip its resources -Heuristic-learning/thinking tool -carrying capacity- upper and lower bound of resources needed for a viable population 23/01/2013 -realized niche-includes the impacts of competition on the organism, different from fundamental which does not -Charles Elton-niche-how an organism responds to the distribution of resources and competition- no 2 organisms occupy the same niche -changes in environments open new niches and close other ones -Hutchinson-occupation of an organism vs address- niche is multi dimensional -Shelfords law of tolrence-the survival of an organism is based on a complex set of conditions, which have a min, max and optimum factor for success -R-selected species-high density dependent-take advantage when there are more resources= more offspring- high fecundity- ducks, coyotes -K-selected species- same amount of young regardless of conditions- large investment in upbringing -Leibig’s law-anything in the least quality will rule the rate- limiting factor (k) -Assumptions of logistic growth model: -closed pop- no I or E -no genetic structure -no sex or size structure -no time lags -constact carry capacity -linear density dependence 31/01/2013 -ecosystem engineers-animals that modify their ecosystems -lifetables- allows us to dissect population in schedules (columns) and cohorts (rows)- based on females, no input on quality, surplus of males, all females will get pregnant -2 types of fertility schedules: -semelparous – once in their life -interoparous-breeds at several age classes -bottle neck-low genetic variability -Lotka Vultera models- interactions between 2 species (predator and prey)- energy moves up the chain through predation -stenophagous- (narrow feeding OR- euryphagous (generalist) 06/02/2013 halfway Assumptions of Lotka Vultera -growth in prey pop is limited solely by predation -predators are specialists -predators consume infinite number of prey -predator and prey encounter eachother randomly in a homogeneous environment -high alpha- each predator can have a high influence on prey -low beta –because it takes a lot of plankton -2 behaviour types: -obligative-they have to do it- no choice -faculative-they’ve learned it -sympatry-occupying the same range -alopatry-occpuying different ranges -threshold foraging-will slow/limit grazing on a resource when its density lowers- it’ll move on or prey switch 27/02/2013 -trophodynamic theory-prey growth is dependent on predator population -marine system-bottom up (pl
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