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ES 301 Midterm: ES 301 - Midterm 2

3 Pages

Environmental Studies
Course Code
ES 301
Anita Girvan

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MIDTERM 2 TERMS Deep reciprocity Dancing the World into Being: A Conversation with Idle No Mores Leanne Simpson (Klein, 2013). Definition: The opposite extractivism a way of taking responsibility for the impacts of the resource extraction. Deep reciprocity is a way of building respect and relationships with the people who inhabit the lands being extracted. Political Ecology: Deep reciprocity is needed in every conversation regarding the extraction of natural resources. Again, W2WC demonstrated that this give and take relationship is vital for different societies to see eye to eye. Pizango wished for Perus government to sit and discuss the laws with him first to create a reciprocal relationship where the Amazon people do not carry all the burden and the government receives all the gains. Locke describes a state of nature, america was a wasteland (In Lockes eyes), it was not developed and was not being used. The Great Transformation: The Great Transformation (Polanyi, 1944). Definition: The great transformation refers to the transformation of European civilization from preindustrial to industrialization. Along with this change in the economy, were changes in socio-economic policies and ideologies. Before industrialization, people would usually take only what they needed to survive produce the food they needed, trade the surplus for goods they required. After industrialization, many people had motives for gain, regardless of the hurt it inflicted on other people or the environment. Political Ecology: The pre-industrial society was dependent on reciprocity and redistribution, symmetry and centricity; no motive for gain, householding for individual/ nuclear-family. Conversely the market society had motives of gain, to get ahead and try to amass as much money as possible. In the same way with resource extraction, there is a race to amass as much petroleum, as much water, as much land as can be privatized (Klein). Enclosures & conversions: The Great Transformation (Polanyi, 1944) chapter 3. Definition: Enclosures and conversions refer to common land that was converted to private land. Tenants (under a landlord) could make their living off the land even though they didnt own it. No need for money if family was fed. However, wool industry became more profitable farmers kicked off land so it could be converted to pastures. Farmers were forced into the industrial workforce. Political Ecology: In the factories, there was no relationship between employer and employee (unlike landlord and tenant who knew one another). This made it much easier to exploit workers gaining surplus labour so employers would profit more. People began to try and accumulate as much as they could. POWER IMBALANCE. Poor man should be satisfied with habitation; living. Rich man should experience improvement. Enclosures not always bad, but the rapid conversion of land use, highly problematic. Similarly, to today when pipeline companies ask to buy land (privitize/convert) to put pipeline through it. Embeddedness: The Great Transformation (Polanyi, 1944). Definition: A significant aspect of The Great Transformation was the switch from the economy being embedded in social relations to social relations being dictated by the economy. Instead of economy being embedded in social relations, social relations are embedded in the economic system. The term "embeddedness" expresses the idea that the economy is not autonomous, but subordinated to politics, religion, and social relations. Economy used to be an accessory to human life now it dictates our society. Political Ecology: The embeddedness of our society within the economy is prevalent today. Many of us search for the highest paying job we are qualified for and will choose a higher salary over a fulfilling career. This is done so we can hoard money (gain motive)
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