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59-235 midterm 1 review.pdf

18 Pages

Chemistry and Biochemistry
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Aromaticity Extremely stable compounds stability through conjugation of double bonds and resonance o Extremely hard to reduce benzenevsAROMATICHUCKELs RULE o 4n2 electrons n012 o The n value is determined by counting the number of electrons in the molecule and seeing which interval of the formula it matches to o Ex Benzene has 6 electrons 4n 26 n1 o If the number of electrons falls on one of the intervals 2 6 10 then it is said to be AROMATIC oo MO Reason for stability in aromatic compoundspaired electrons in bonding orbitals Anti aromatic have unpaired electronsunstable ANTIAROMATIC UNSTABLE o 4n electrons n012 o These are classified as ANTIAROMATICNONIf the number of electrons does not fit into either of these categories it is known asNON AROMATIC CHARACTERISTICSOnly Lone Pairs that are in the same plane are counted in the electron systemElectrons in porbitals orthogonal to the system do not contribute to the electron count Ex o BenzeneDue to resonance between bonds no bond of benzene is strictly single or doublebut rather a midway point between them in terms of lengtho Single 132A o Double 153A o Benzene1398A all o All Cs are sp2 hybridizedentire molecule is flat Disubstituted Nomenclatureo Ortho beside o Meta One removed o Para across fromCommon Names o Circled red are most important HOWEVER since the rest are in the notes they are also fair game But know the ones in 100
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