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Computer Concept Midterm Guide

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University of Windsor
Computer Science
E.El- Habash

Computer Concepts Chapter 1-3,10 Chapter One The Digital Revolution  Computer network  The Web  Cyberspace  Digitization  Convergence  Anonymous Proxies  Intellectual Property Considerations  Privacy Concerns  Effects of Globalization Computer Basics  A computer is a multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data and produces output, all according to a series of stored instructions  Input  Output  Data vs. Information  Processing o Central Processing Unit (CPU) o Microprocessor  Memory  Storage  File  Computer Program (aka Software)  Stored Program  Application Software  System software o Operating System (OS)  examples, Linux, Microsoft Windows (Windows XP, Windows 7 etc) Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes and Supercomputer  Personal Computer  Workstation  Server  Mainframe  Supercomputer  Compute Intensive Problem  PDA  Handheld computer  Smartphones  Portable Media Players  Tablet Computers Microcontrollers  A microcontroller is a special-purpose microprocessor that is built into the machine it controls 1  Microcontrollers can be embedded in all sorts of everyday devices Digital Data Representation Data representation  Digital devices  like a light switch  only two options (1 and 0) like on and off  Analog devices  like a light switch that can dim the lights  infinite scales of values  Numeric data – any number that is going to be used in calculations  Binary Number System  conversion for calculation table, ex. 8 bit = 1 byte  Character data – numbers that won’t be calculated, ex. Phone numbers  Digitizing Quantifying Bits and Bytes  Kilo – thousand  Mega – million  Giga – billion Circuits and Chips  An integrated circuit (computer chip) is a super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements ex. Remote has an integrated circuit  The electronic components of most digital devices are mounted on a circuit board called a system board (or mother board) Digital Processing Programs and Instruction Sets  Computers, portable media players, PDAs, and smartphones all work with digital data  Computer programmers  High-level language  Source Code  high level programming code  Machine Code (0s & 1s)  Compiler  take all the information in  Interpreter  takes information in bit by bit, and converts the high language code to machine code  Instruction Set  An op code (short for operation code) is a command word for an operation such as add, compare, or jump  The operand for an instruction specifies the data, or the address of the data, for the operation  In the following instruction, the op code means add and the operand is 1, so the instruction means Add 1 Processor Logic  The ALU (arithmetic logic unit) is the part of the microprocessor that performs arithmetic operations  The ALU uses registers to hold data that is being processed  The microprocessor’s control unit fetches each instruction, just as you get each ingredient out of a cupboard (like memory) or the refrigerator  The term instruction cycle refers to the process in which a computer executes a single instruction  Processor Logic goes in a cycle: Fetch instruction, interpret instruction, execute instruction, increment pointer to the next instruction Password Security Password Hacks 2  Identity theft  Dictionary attack  Brute force attack  Sniffing  taking information that is travelling across the system  Phishing  fake websites designed to take your personal information  Keyloggers  piece of software that gets sent to you, and then it captures information and sends it to the hacker  Less than 2% of Canadian historical documents have been digitized  Strive to select a unique user ID that you can use for more than one site  Maintain two or three tiers of passwords Chapter Two Personal Computer Basics Desktop and Portable Computers  Form factor – different shapes and sizes of a computer  Desktop computer  Portable computer  Notebook computer  Netbook computer  Tablet Computer Microprocessors and Memory Microprocessor Basics o Usually made by big companies, ex. Intel, AMD o “brains” of the computer o Usually the most expensive component of the computer  A microprocessor is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions  Usually the most expensive component of a computer  Microprocessor clock (Megahertz/Gigahertz)  Front side bus  Word size  Cache (L1/L2)  Serial processing  consecutive o Pipelining  concurrent instructions  Parallel processing  2 or more processes happening concurrently  Multi-core processor  multiple processes happen independently and simultaneously  Benchmarks  measure of speed and memory Random Access Memory  RAM (random access memory) is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system o Document stored here before stored on hard disk o Most commonly used o Critical for speed  Microscopic capacitors hold the bits that represent data  Most RAM is volatile 3  Requires electrical power to hold data  RAM capacity is expressed in megabytes or gigabytes  Personal computers typically feature between 2 GB and 8 GB of RAM  An area of the hard disk, called virtual memory, can be used if an application runs out of allocated RAM o Virtual memory – portion of the hard disk used to simulate the RAM  RAM speed is often expressed in nanoseconds or megahertz  SDRAM is fast and relatively inexpensive  DDR, DDR2, or DDR3  Dual-channel architecture can supply two streams of data over the bus between RAM and the processor  RAM is fairly inexpensive Read-Only Memory  ROM is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer’s startup routine – Permanent, non-volatile and doesn’t require power  The ROM BIOS tells the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM – Can change the boot sequence EEPROM  Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory  More permanent than RAM, and less permanent than ROM  Requires no power to hold data Storage Devices Storage Basics  A storage medium contains data  A storage device records and retrieves data from a storage medium – Data gets copied from a storage device into RAM, where it waits to be processed – Processed data is held temporarily in RAM before it is copied to a storage medium  Vertical vs. horizontal storage Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology  Magnetic storage stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on the disk or tape surface  Take unwritten data, when the particles need to be written and changes the particles  Hard disk platters and read-write heads are sealed inside the drive case or cartridge to screen out dust and other contaminants.  In the olden days when the read-write heads collide with the disk the computer would crash  A hard disk controller positions the disk, locates data, and interfaces with the components of the system board  Hard disk controller tells other components what to do - SATA - Ultra ATA - EIDE - SCSI  Not as durable as many other storage technologies - Head crash 4  A floppy disk is a round piece of flexible Mylar plastic covered with a thin layer of magnetic oxide and sealed inside a protective casing  Mylar plastic in floppy disks holds the magnetic particles  Tape storage is too slow for modern computing  Tape storage  back up  CD (compact disk)  light back up CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Technology  Optical storage stores data as microscopic light and dark spots on the disk surface o CD, DVD, and Blu-ray storage technologies  Today’s DVD drives typically have 22X speeds for a data transfer rate of 297 Mbps  Three categories of optical technologies o Read-only (ROM)  can’t change information on the disk, ex. Microsoft Office CD o Recordable (R)  ex. Making a CD for the car o Rewritable (RW)  can change information on the CD over and over again  uses phase changes  CD-DA –compact disc digital audio – aka audio CD  DVD-Video – digital versatile disc video  CD-ROM – compact disc read-only memory  DVD-ROM – digital versatile disc read-only memory  CD-R – compact disc recordable  DVD+R or DVD-R – digital versatile disc recordable  CD-RW – compact disc rewritable  DVD+RW or DVD-RW – digital versatile disc rewritable  BD-ROM (blu-ray read-only memory), BD-R (blu-ray recordable), and BD-RE (blu-ray rewritable) Solid State Storage  Solid state storage technology stores data in an erasable, rewritable circuitry  Doesn’t have moving parts  Non-volatile  Card reader may be required to read data on solid state storage  Example – USB Storage Wrap-up 5 Input and Output Devices Basic Input/ Output Devices  Keyboard  Pointing device – Mice – Pointing stick – Trackpad – Trackball – Joystick  Touch screen Display Devices  LCD (liquid crystal display) produces an image by manipulating light within a layer of liquid crystal cells  OLED screens use organic light emitting diodes and use less power  Screen size  Dot pitch – how many dots comprise the workspace, closer the dots  higher the resolution  Viewing angle width – how much you can see from different angles  Response rate  Color depth – the number of bits that determines the range of possible colours that can be assigned to each pixel. Ex. 8 bit colour depth can create 256 colours  Resolution  bigger the picture, lower the resolution o VGA, SVGA, XGA, SXGA, UXGA, WUXGA, and WQXGA o Most websites use XGA resolution Display Devices  Graphics circuitry generates the signals for displaying an image on the screen – Integrated graphics – Graphics card – Graphics processing unit (GPU) Printers  An ink-jet printer has a nozzle-like print head that sprays ink onto paper  A laser printer works like a photocopier  Laser printers are a popular technology when high-volume output or good-quality printouts are required.  Dot matrix printers produce characters and graphics by using a grid of fine wires o The wires strike a ribbon and the paper  Printer features o Resolution  higher the resolution, clearer the image o Print speed o Duty cycle  looks at the number of pages the printer can produce before it requires maintenance or reaches the end of its life o Operating costs  the amount of money per page etc. o Duplex capability  double sided o Memory o Networkability Installing Peripheral Devices 6  The data bus moves data between RAM and the microprocessor  The segment of the data bus to which peripheral devices connect is called the expansion bus  An expansion slot is a long, narrow socket on the system board into which you can plug an expansion card  Expansion cards are small circuit boards that give the computer additional capabilities o Expansion slot  An expansion port passes data in and out of a computer or peripheral device  Most peripherals connect to an external USB port  You can easily add USB ports to your computer by using a USB hub  Other kinds of ports  Plug and play automatically configures your computer to accommodate new peripheral devices you add Hardware Security Surge and Protection and Battery Backup  Battery backup – power just in case there is no power  Power surge  Brown out  Surge strip  UPS Troubleshooting and Repair  There are several telltale signs that your computer is in trouble – Failure to power up – Loud beep – Blank screens and/or error messages – Black screen of death  Windows Help and Support  Safe Mode  condensed mode  doesn’t load everything Chapter Three 7 Software Basics Software Categories  Systems software – computer programs, such as an operating system or utility software, that help the computer carry out essential operating tasks  Application Software – computer programs that help you perform a specific task such as word processing. Also called application program, applications, or programs Application Software  Probably the most accustomed to working with  Productivity software  makes the task more simple ex. Powerpoint, word o Presentation software is also considered graphic software  Groupware  anything intended to help groups of people to accomplish a specific task. Ex. CLEW Utility Software  Utility software  resource management  Desktop widget/gadget – ex. Clock, calendar etc on the desktop Device Drivers  A device driver is software that helps a peripheral device establish communication with a computer  Tells the computer how to work with something. Ex. Printer Popular Applications Document Production Software  system software – computer programs, such as operating system or utility software, that help the computer carry out essential operating tasks  Assists you with composing, editing, designing, printing, and electronically publishing documents – Word processing – Desktop publishing – Web authoring  digital document  Document production software may include: – Spelling checker o Spelling dictionary  Thesaurus  Grammar checker  Feature to analyze the reading level – Readability formula  Search and Replace feature  one change in one place  The format for the document refers to the way that all elements are arranged on the page  Kerning – distance between letters  horizontally  Leading – distance between lines  vertically  Mail merge automatically creates personalized letters by combining the information in a mailing list with a form letter  Additional capabilities of word processing software include: – Automatically generating table of contents and index – Numbering and positioning footnotes – Providing document templates and document wizards – Exporting to HTML format  can be taken from word document to website Spreadsheet Software 8  A spreadsheet uses rows and columns of numbers to create a model or representation of a real solution  Spreadsheet software, such as Microsoft Excel, iWork Numbers, or OpenOffice Calc, provides tools for creating electronic spreadsheets  Allows you to do math, formulas etc.  When a cell contains a formula, it displays the result of the formula rather than the formula itself. To view and edit the formula, you use the Formula bar o Cell reference is column by row ex. A1  A formula tells the computer how to use the contents of cells in calculations o Cell references - Relative reference - Absolute reference  Mathematical operators  Functions  Automatic recalculations  As shown in the examples, relative references within a formula can change when you change the sequence of a worksheet’s rows and columns. An absolute reference is anchored so that it always refers to a specific cell. Number “Crunching” Software  Provides a structured environment dedicated to a particular number crunching task – Statistical software – Mathematical modeling software – Money management software • Personal finance software – Tax preparation software Database Software  A database is a collection of data – Database software helps you enter, find, organize, update, and report information stored in a database – Database is constructed of records that are in tables  have all information in these tables  Database software provides tools for specifying fields for a series of records. – Each record is about one particular thing, within the record is a field which is one characteristic. Ex. First name or last name  A query language such as SQL (Structured Query Language) provides a set of commands for locating and manipulating data – Natural language query – Query by example Graphic Software  Designed to help you create, manipulate, and print graphics – Paint software  Microsoft paint – Photo editing software  photoshop – Drawing software  Corel draw – 3-D graphics software – CAD software – Presentation software  Microsoft Powerpoint  Underlying wire frame between Shrek and Sulley basically the same over shape 9  Bitmap  photoshop  made of little pixels  Vector  Corel Draw  can take it into a formula  A computer-based presentation consists of a series of slides, created with presentation software. Music Software  Allows you to make your own digital voice and music recordings o Audio editing software – a program that enables users to create and edit digital voice and music recordings o CD ripper software o Audio encoding software o Ear training software o Notation software – software used to help musicians compose, edit and print their compositions o Computer-aided music software o MIDI sequencing software Video Editing and DVD Authoring Software  Provides a set of tools for – Transferring video footage from a camcorder to a computer – Clipping out unwanted footage – Assembling video segments – Adding special visual effects – Adding a sound track  DVD authoring software creates DVDs with Hollywood-style menus Educational and Reference Software  Educational software – Helps you learn and practice new skills  Reference software – Provides a collection of information and a way to access that information – Generally shipped on CD or DVD, or access
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