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Computer Science 60-104 Midterm: Key Terms

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Computer Science
E.El- Habash

Terms for the Midterm Chapter 1 Instant messaging – private chat in which users can communicate with each other in real time using electronically transmitted text messages Blog (WeB LOG) – a publicly-accessible personal journal posted on the web. Blogs often reflect the personality of the author and are updated daily Social networks - A social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) which are connected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationships, or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. For example: facebook, twitter, habbo, MySpace, etc… Digitization – the conversion of non-digital information or media to a digital format through the use of a scanner, sampler, or other input device Upload - Transferring or sending files over the network. For example, sending an attachment through e- mail or transferring or "uploading" a video on YouTube for the whole world to see. Download – the process of transferring a file from a remote computer to a local computer’s storage device Anonymizer – software and/or hardware that cloaks the origination of an e-mail or Web page request VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) – hardware, software, and protocols used to make telephone-style calls over the internet. Aka. Internet telephony Patents - A grant given by the government that gives the creator of an invention, hardware, or software, the sole right to make, use and sell their invention for a set period of time. Trademarks - A grant given by the government that gives the creator of an invention, hardware, or software, the sole right to make, use and sell their invention for a set period of time. Copyright – form of legal protection that grants certain exclusive rights to the author of a program or the owner of the copyright Pirating - To use or make copies of copyrighted materials without authorized permission as well as distributing these materials. Some examples include copying CDs and DVDs for personal use and lending or selling the burned discs/files to other people. Convergence – the meddling of digital devices into a single platform that handles a diverse array of digital content, such as cell phones also playing music and displaying digital video Memory – the computer circuitry that holds data waiting to be processed (temporary) Storage – the area of the computer where data is retained on a permanent basis (permanent) Processing – the manipulation of data by a computer’s microprocessor or central processing unit Input – noun – the information that is conveyed to a computer. Verb – to enter data into a computer Output – the results produced by a computer (for example, reports, graphs, and music) Compiler – software that translates a program written in a high-level language into low-level instructions before the program is executed Interpreter – a program that converts high-level instructions in a computer program into machine language instructions, one instruction at a time Digital – text, numbers, graphics, or sound represented by discrete digits, such as 1s and 0s Analog – data that is measured or represented on a continuously varying scale, such as a dimmer switch or a watch with sweep second hand File – a named collection of data (such as a computer program, document, or graphic) that exists on a storage medium, such as hard disk or CD Mainframe – a large, fast, and expensive computer generally used by businesses or government agencies to provide centralized storage, processing and management of large data 1 Data – the symbols of that a computer uses to represent facts and ideas Information - a collection of data which is presented as something that people can understand and use. Authentication protocol – passwords, user IDs, and biometric measures used to verify a person’s identity Chapter 2 Peripheral device – a component or equipment, such as a printer, that expand a computer’s input, output or storage capabilities Digital device - a device that works with discrete numbers or digits (0s and 1s) Form factor - refers to the shape and size (dimensions) of a component, it determines what the component will look like. System specification (requirement) – the criteria for developing a successful information system; compiled into a system requirements reports at the conclusion of the analysis phase Word size – the number of bits that a CPU can manipulate at one time, which is dependent on the size of the registers of the CPU, and the number of data lines in the bus. Central Processing Unit (CPU) – the main processing circuitry within a computer or chip that contains the ALU, control unit, and registers Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) – the part of the CPU that performs arithmetic and logical operations on the numbers stored in its registers Register – a sort of “scratch pad” area of the microprocessor into which data or instructions are moved so that they can be processed Capacitor – electronic circuit components that store an electrical charge; in RAM, a charged capacitor represents an “on” bit, and a discharged one represents an “off” bit Serial processing – processing of data one instruction at a time, completing one instruction before beginning another Parallel processing – the simultaneous use of more than one processor to execute a program Pipelining – a technology that allows a processor to begin executing an instruction before completing the previous instruction Benchmark – a set of tests used to measure computer hardware or software performance RAM (Random Access Memory) – computer memory circuitry that holds data, programs instructions, and the operating system while the computer is on ROM (Read Only Memory) – refers to one or more integrated circuits that contain permanent instructions that the computer uses during the boot process Virtual memory – a computer’s use of hard disk storage to stimulate RAM Data transfer rate – the amount of data that a storage device can move from a storage medium to computer memory in one time unit, such as one second Magnetic storage – a technology for recording data onto disks or tape by magnetizing particles of an oxide-based surface coating Optical storage – a technology that records data as light and dark spots on a CD, DVD, or other optical media Resolution – the density of the grid used to display or print text and graphics; the greater the horizontal and vertical density, the higher the resolution Duty cycle – a measurement of how many pages a printer is able to produce per day or month PCL (Printer Command Language) - is a page description language (PDL) developed by Hewlett-Packard as a printer protocol and has become a de facto industry standard. Originally developed for early inkjet printers in 1984, PCL has been released in varying levels for thermal, matrix printer, and page printers. HP-GL and PJL are supported by later versions of PCL. AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) - high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a 2 computer's motherboard, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) - is a computer bus used for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. It is the most popular local I/O bus used in today. PCI provides a shared data path between the CPU and peripheral controllers in every computer models, from laptops to mainframes. Power surge – a spike in the electrical voltage that has the potential to damage electronic equipment such as computers UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) – a battery-backed device designed to provide power to a computer during blackouts, brown-outs or other electrical disruptions Power strip - an electrical unit with multiple electrical outlets (ex. Extension cord) Storage devices (CD-RW, floppy disk, hard disk, DVD, USB key, etc.) Dot pitch –the diagonal distance between coloured dots on a display screen. Measured in millimeters, dot pitch helps to determine the quality of an image displayed on a monitor Pixels – short for picture element; is the smallest unit in a graphic image. Computer display devices use a matrix of pixels to display text and graphics CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) - an electronic display device in which a beam of electrons is focused on a glass viewing screen to produce an image. (Ex. The old bulky monitor) LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) – technology used for flat panel computer screens typically found on notebook computers Plasma - it relies on the plasma cells to display the pixels. Millions of plasma cells are contained between two pan
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