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Final

95-458 Study Guide - Final Guide: Juxtaglomerular Cell, Adrenal Medulla, Chromaffin Cell


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KINE 4580
Professor
Dr.Kevin Milne
Study Guide
Final

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ADRENAL GLAND + KIDNEYS STUDY CHART
Adrenal Gland + Kidneys
Variables
Summary
Function
ANATOMY/LOCATION
1. The ADRENAL GLANDS sit of top
on top of the KIDNEYS
2. Kidneys
3. GLOMERULOUS
4. JUXTAGLOMERULAR
APPARATUS
(and Distal tubule)
1. Adrenal Glands:
Composed of the CORTEX (outer) and
MEDULLA (inner)
CORTEX:
o Consist of steroidogenic cells
1. Zona Glomerulosa
(mineralocorticoids)
2. Zona Fasciculata (glucocorticoids)
3. Zona Reticularis (androgens)
MEDULLA:
a. Chromaffin cells
b. epinephrine (adrenaline) storing cells +
norepinephrine (noradrenaline) storing cells
2. Kidneys: FRERR
a. Filtration: of blood constituents (H2O,Na+,
K, Glucose, Ca2+, etc)
b. Reapsorption: of constituents
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c. Excretion: of metabolic waste products
(i.e., hydrogen (H) and creatine) and foreign
chemicals (i.e., drugs, toxins, additives, etc).
d. Release: Erythroproietin (EPO) and vitamin
D, RAAS components
e. Regulation/Control: PH, gluconeogenesis
from amino acids*, arterial pressure, and
water + electrode excretion.
3. Glomerulous: a cluster of nerve endings, spores,
or small blood vessels in particular. It is
responsible for the filtration of arterial blood
(filters water, electrolytes, tubular fluid, etc.)
a. Distal tubule: conserves Na+ (and hence
H2O).
4.
CELL TYPE*
(+systems)
1. Steroidogenic cells
2. Chromaffin cells
3. epinephrine (adrenaline) storing
4. 2. norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
storing
5. Erythrocytes
6. Juxtaglomerular cells & Macula
Densa
1. Synthesize steroids
2. ~
3. ~
4. ~
5. (Red Blood Cells): Carrying molecules within the
blood.
6. Juxtaglomerular cells: Respond to SNS
stimulation and decreased blood volume and blood
pressure
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o Epithelial cells lined alongside the afferent
and efferent arteries which carry blood to the
glomerulus
o Macula Densa: stimulates juxtaglomerular
cells through paracrine action when distal
tubule’s [Na+] increases..
Steroid types
(Notably those important to exercise)
1. Mineralocorticorticoids
2. Glucocorticoids
3. Androgens
HORMONES
(+site-names, types,
function)
1. CHOLESTEROL
2. CORTISOL
3. ALDOSTERONE (The “salt”
hormone)
4. DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone)
Adrenal Medulla
5. Catecholamines
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
1. Common precursor for steroids (found in all cells of
the body).
Rate limiting step: P450scc. You must increase
the activity of this enzyme to make more of the
desired hormone.
Synthesizes vitamin D and other substances that
help you digest food*. We have all that we need
but it is also in foods.
Travels in the blood as lipoproteins (made up of fat
on the inside and proteins on the outside).
o Low-Density Lipoporteins (LDL): Known
as “bad cholesterol because it can lead to a
buildup of cholesterol in the arteries.
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