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Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders What is Psychopathology? “the study of psychological disorders” General Overview * Anxiety Disorders  panic, phobia, OCD * Dissociative Disorders  fugue, MPD * Mood Disorder  depression, mania * Schizophrenia  types, genetics * Insanity Defense  history, legal issues Criteria for Psychopathology • Abnormality o deviates from the typical person o quantitative and qualitative deviations • Maladaptiveness o disruption in social, academic, vocational life • Personal Distress o subjective feelings of anxiety, depression, etc. Classification of Disorders: The DSM-IV (1994) • Disorders have their own symptoms • Freud’s system of classification had two categories o Neurosis  adjustment problems o Psychosis  lost contact with reality • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4 ed.) divides disorders according to five axes Sane in Insane Places: Rosenhan (1973) * Addressed the arguments of Szasz * Eight sane people were admitted to a mental hospital; each reportedly heard voices * Symptoms quickly disappeared * Would the staff detect the imposters? Implications of Rosenhan (1973) * Eight sane people were admitted to a mental hospital; each reportedly heard voices * Symptoms quickly disappeared * Would the staff detect the imposters? Anxiety Disorders Feelings of apprehension accompanied by enhanced sympathetic nervous system (heart beat, sweating, breathing) * GeneralizedAnxiety * PanicAttacks * Phobias (non/social) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Howie Mandel’s Guest House OBSESSIONS “persistent recurrent thoughts” Fear ofAIDS Fear of some disaster Fear of contamination Fear of losing important things COMPULSIONS “repetitive action one feels compelled to perform” Arranging objects Hoarding items Checking locks and lights Constantly seeking approval Dissociative Disorders Conscious awareness becomes separated from thoughts, feelings, and memories (Psycho, Best Picture, 1960) * PsychogenicAmnesia * Psychogenic Fugue * Multiple Personality Disorder Multiple Personality (Dissociative) Disorder * Person has 2 or more distinct personalities which alternate among each other * may be fe/male, child/elderly, im/moral * personalities have their own speech, walk, script, health conditions (diabetes, high blood pressure) * 95% of cases stem from childhood trauma * Chris Sizemore (3); Sybil Dorsett (16); Mulligan * Ross (1991) estimates at 1.3% of ppln has MPD Mood Disorders: Common Cold of Psychopathology * Prolonged depression or elation * Major/Unipolar Depression (8.3%) * fatigued, low self-esteem, helpless, suicide * poor sleep, appetite, attention, grooming * twice the incidence in women * Manic/Bipolar Depression (1.2%) * hyperactivity, grand ideas, unreal optimism * rash business deals; quit job to train in Olympics Schi
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