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Psychology 46-256 Midterm: Midterm 1 Review

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University of Windsor

Short Answers: 1. Exocytosis • The process of neurotransmitter release • When a neuron is at rest, synaptic vesicles that contain small-molecule neurotransmitters tend to gather around presynaptic membrane that are rich in calcium channels • When stimulated by action potentials, these channels open, and Ca 2+ ions enter the button • The entry of Ca 2+ causes synaptic vesicles to empty their contents into the synaptic cleft 2. Evolution-what do we know and what have we misunderstood, research we've done on evolution • Cartesian dualism (Descartes)  the universe is composed of two elements: physical matter and the human mind • Darwin's evolution theory o Evidence:  Evolution of fossil records through progressively more recent geological layers  Striking structural similarities among living (ex. a human's hand, a bird's wing); suggested that they evolved from common ancestors  Major changes in domestic plants and animals by programs of selective breeding o Most convincing evidence  direct observations of rapid evolution in progress o Argued that evolution occurs through natural selection (heritable traits that are associated with high rates of survival and reproduction are most likely ones to be passed on to future generations) o Natural selection leads to evolution of species that are better adapted to surviving and reproducing o Fitness  the ability of an organism to survive and contribute its genes to the next generation 3. The lobes of the brain • Frontal Lobe motor and cognitive functions • Temporal Lobe  hearing and language • Parietal Lobe sensations and perception • Occipital Lobe sight 4. Understand the brain and behaviour and how an injury to a certain area can lead to specific behaviours • Phineas Gage o Damage in the frontal cortex o Loss of social inhibitions, which then led to inappropriate behaviours 5. Mechanism of resting membrane potential and action potentials • Resting potential  -70mV (means it is polarized) • Action potential (AP)  lasting for 1 millisecond, reversal of the membrane potential from about -70 to about +50mV Multiple Choice Qs: 1. What neuroscience and biopsychology are, basic information • Biopsychology  the scientific study of the biology of behaviour • Neuroscience  the scientific study of the nervous system 2. neurons specialized cells to do what (Interactions between neurons) • cells that receive and transmit electrochemical signals 3. Review Descartes, Darwin (evolution) and Gallup (self awareness) • Gallup’s study on chimpanzee with the mirrors on self-awareness o Asomatognosia  a deficiency in the awareness of parts of one's own body 4. Define Asomatognosia • Asomatognosia  a deficiency in the awareness of part’s of your body • Brain damage on right hemisphere causing the individual having no knowledge of their left side 5. The importance of Social dominance • Dominant males breed more than non-dominant males; thus more effective in passing on their characteristics to future generations • In some species, dominant females are more likely to produce more and more healthy offspring 6. Two major divisions of the nervous system (components and functions) • Central Nervous System (CNS)  located within the skull and spine o Composed of two divisions: brain and spinal cord o Sympathetic and parasympathetic system • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  located outside the skull and spine o Composed of two divisions: somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system 7. CNS is composed of two major divisions. What are they? • Sympathetic and parasympathetic system 8. What does the parasympathetic nervous system do? • Resting and restoring responses 9. The dura, arachnoid, and pia mater • three membranes protecting the brain and spinal cord o outer meninx called dura mater o Inside dura mater: arachnoid membrane o Then the innermos
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