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Psychology 46-256 Midterm: Midterm 2 Review

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Midterm Review Guide The role of pigment(s) vision  A pigment is any substance that absorbs light  In 1876, there was a breakthrough in the study of visual transduction when a red pigment (known as rhodopsin) was extracted from rods  When the pigment was exposed to continuous intense light, it was bleached (lost its colour), and it lost its ability to absorb light  But when it was returned to the dark, it regained both its redness and its light-absorbing ability  The degree to which rhodopsin absorbs light in different situations predicts how humans see under the same conditions  Ex. it has been shown to which rhodopsin absorbs lights of different wavelengths is related to the ability of humans and other animals with rods to detect the presence of different wavelengths of light under scotopic conditions What/where pathways  Ungerleider and Mishkin (1982) proposed that the dorsal and ventral visual streams perform different visual functions o Dorsal stream is involved in the perception of "where" objects are and the ventral stream involved in the perception of "what" objects are o Aka "where" vs. "what" theory o Damage to posterior parietal cortex  difficulty reaching accurately for objects that they have no difficulty describing o Damage to inferotemporal cortex  no difficulty reaching accurately for objects that they have difficulty describing  Alternation by Goodale and Milner (1992)  "control of behaviour" vs. "conscious perception" theory o Function of dorsal stream is to direct behavioural interactions with objects; function of ventral stream is to mediate the conscious perception of objects Deficit diagnosis Drug addicts and expectations Pathways for hearing  Sound waves travel from the outer ear down the auditory canal and cause the eardrum to vibrate  These vibrations are transferred to 3 ossicles (small bones of the middle ear): the malleus (the hammer), the incus (the anvil), and the stapes (the stirrup)  Vibrations of the stapes trigger vibrations of the membrane called the oval window, which transfers the vibrations to the fluid of snail-shaped cochlea  Axons of each audito
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