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Psychology 46-256 Final: Final Exam Review

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Final Exam Review Guide Hebb's theory (1949)  Argued that to increase efficiency of synaptic transmission, the basis of long-term memory that the search for the neural bases of learning and memory focused almost exclusively on the synapse  In other words, the persistency/repetition of a reverberatory (or trace) activity tends to induce long-lasting cellular change to stable itself, if an axon of cell A is close enough to excite a cell B and repeatedly takes part in firing, some growth or some metabolic change takes place in one or both cells to increase efficiency  In other words, cells that fire together, also wire together Myers and Sperry (1953)  To find the function of the corpus callosum by an experiment on cats  4 groups: o The key experimental group with both the optic chiasm and corpus callosum transected o A control group with only the optic chiasm transected o A control group with only the corpus callosum transected o An unlesioned control group  For each group, an eye patch was put on to show the effect of the transfer from one eye to another  By showing each cat with a circle or square, the cat has to learn which symbol to press in order to get a food reward  The results showed that the control groups with either the optic chiasm or the corpus callosum transected had no effect with the transfer of the eye patch; performed the task with almost 100% accuracy  But big effect on the performance of the cats in the experimental group when blindfolding the hemisphere that originally learned the task and tested the performance on the other hemisphere, found out that the second hemisphere almost had to relearn the task to perform as well as the first hemisphere  Myers and Sperry concluded that the cat brain has the ability to act as two separate brains and that the function of the corpus callosum is to transmit information between them  Did a similar study with split-brain patients, except a different visual-discrimination procedure was used because cutting the optic chiasm produces scotoma (causes blindness) o Patient was asked to focus on the centre of the display, Visual stimuli were flashed onto the right or left side of the screen for 0.1 second o The results was similar and diffe
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