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Prevalence Rates for 46-322

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Prevalence Rates Health Related Disorders Dyssomnias (Insomnias) • Rare in preschoolers and almost unheard of in infants • More common in adolescence and very common in adulthood Parasomnias • More common for children  nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking • Sleepwalking o Occurs during the first 1/3 of the night (not during REM sleep) o About 15% of ppl have one episode o 1-6% of population have chronic sleepwalking  Usually disappears in adolescence • Sleep terrors: o 3% of young children o Most common in ages 3 – 5 o First 1/3 of the night (not during REM sleep) • Nightmares: o 60% have severe nightmares on a regular basis o Unable to move o Happens during latter half of the night (during REM sleep) o Can recall the next day Potty Training • Around 2 or 3 years old o Earlier for girls than boys • Methods: o Hold child over potty every hour and force them to go  trained by 6- 8 months o Weekend  strip the child down follow them around, move them to potty if necessary and have them clean up their mess • Most likely to be accomplished by 16-36 months, up to 5 years • Accomplish order: nighttime bowel, daytime bowel, nighttime bladder, daytime bladder Enuresis • Don’t diagnose before age 5  children before age 5 typically have accidents once in a while • Most common type is nocturnal (bed wetting) • More common in boys • Primary  no success in not bed wetting • Secondary  was success but regress back to bed wetting (usually caused by a stressor) • Must have 3 episodes per week for at least 3 months • Age 5: about 7% boys, 3% girls • Age 10: 3% boys, 2% girls Encopresis • At least one bowel movement accident per month for three months • Must be at least 5 • Occurs more often during day than night Chronic Illnesses Chronic Illness • Lasts at least 3 months with significant symptoms • Found on either axis 1 (as comorbid) on DSM or axis 3 (as general medication condition) Asthma • Approx. 10% kids have diagnosable asthma and numbers are growing • Causes: heritable, environmental triggers, increased rates of respiratory infections, stress • 3 symptoms: swelling in respiratory passages, narrowing of air passages, wheezing Cancer • Most common childhood cancer  Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (A.L.L) • In 1960s  1% survival rate in 5 years, now  88% survival rate in 5 years Diabetes • One of the most common chronic diseases in humans, and increasing in prevalence largely due to obesity • Poorly managed diabetes damages heart, eyes, brain and kidneys • Ppl with diabetes must enhance testing – test blood or urine for presence of sugars, usually multiple times per day • Typically management deteriorates in adolescence  rebel, want more power, want to be like others • Two types of diabetes: o Insulin-dependent (childhood-onset diabetes)  Pancreas does not produce enough insulin, need insulin replacement therapy o Insulin-resistant (type II)  Largely caused by obesity  Increasingly common in kids  Minority backgrounds at higher risk for type 2 diabetes • Hypoglycaemia  not enough insulin • Hyperglycaemia  too much insulin Pain • 2 major factors: cause of pain, person’s awareness Coping • Techniques: breathing, relaxation of body, coping video, coaching, role play Substance-Rela
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