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Psychology 46-333 Midterm: Cheat Sheet for Midterm 1

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University of Windsor
Kenneth Hart

Lecture 1 (Jan 8)  Video o Scientific research generating factual • Suggestions for Emerging Professional Issues • Humanistic, psychodynamic, cognitive therapies knowledge o Obtain client informed consent about the use • Lynda Minkoff  divorce • Research to asses treatment effectiveness often uses of technology (risks of using technology) o Spent too much money on things that she therapy manuals o Follow relevant telehealth laws (must meet • Pros: ensures uniformity across therapists legal requirements) doesn’t need, difficulty sleeping; low energy level • Psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive/behavioural • Q: What is "evidence-based treatment" and why is o Follow APA ethical code (the Canadian one is therapies main types of therapies it important? very similar) o Treatment based on evidence driven from o Ensure confidentiality using encryption Humanistic therapy o • Focused on the relationship between the client and the scientific research Make efforts to appreciate culture therapist o Licensed professionals must use techniques o Obtain relevant training • Asking questions for the client, understanding of what that are evidence-based which are proven to be effective o Know client's local emergency resources o It is unethical to use other techniques Issue #3: Ethics client says, understanding of what the client understands of him or herself o **therapy combine with drugs • Ethics and science called "the 2 pillars" of clinical • Lynda is hard to let go of her husband o A: is when research findings supports the use psychology • The therapist acts as a mirror because he reflects of a manualized therapy; avoids ineffective or unethical • The 2 Pillar's of Clinical Psychology treatment o Science Q1: What is the evidence-base for what the client says and feels; engages in active listening • Does not give clients what ought to do and what not to • Pros what I am planning to do with my clients? do; therapists don’t give advice but rather help the client o Scientific legitimacy (grounded in scientific o Practice Q1: What are the risks to my client of evidence) the course of action I am planning? to better understand and accept themselves o • Autonomy-supportive therapy  the freedom to Establishing minimal levels of competence • Ethical Questions choose what the client should do non-directive o Training improvements (ex. education) o Ethics to protect the welfare of the client o Decreased reliance on clinical judgement (ex. o It is ethically required that professional • Never judge the client  Unconditional positive impression) relying more on research than one's own services be informed by research evidence regard  • Over time, the client will come to self-acceptance beliefs o Potential harm can come to client when there Cognitive/Behavioural Approach o Increased exportability of treatment (useful for is no science to guide practice patients around the world) o Need to balance offering no service rather than • Focused on changing how the person thinks and behaves risk providing wrong or harmful treatment and on working with the client to see what the client believes • Cons what the problem is  the subjective meaning o Threats to the psychotherapy relationship  • In clinical decision making, a balancing is needed they tend to be humanistic therapists; they think sticking to o The balance of excessive open mindedness vs. • Lynda believes that people are not trustworthy because the treatment manual too much might be inhuman or too excessive caution and scepticism of her husband and that something is wrong with her for not o keeping the marriage healthy mechanical, need to have a trusting bond between therapist Balance between intuition (one's own • Albert Alice believes that there are irrational beliefs and patient (patients must be respected) subjective impression) and evidence (scientific research to  o Restrictions on practic humanists respect support intuition) implicit assumptions (should and must statements); that o Blend them through experience she’s alienated from her true feelings the freedom o "her husband should go into therapy with her" o Debatable criteria for empirical evidence • Example of treatment arachnophobia Issue #2: The Influence of Technology • Historical Roots of Concern with ethical codes to guide  if she believed differently, she wouldn't feel this way now • Increased use of technology in the direct delivery of professional practice • First, to find the meanings of her feelings and to o Psychologists are almost obsessed with ethics understand them; then trying to change how they see psychological services o Ex. 1 assessment (online diagnosis) because there were misconducts themselves o Ex. 2 treatment delivered by the internet o Revelations of misconduct discovered during Psychodynamic Approach Nuremberg war crime trials after WW2 • Unconscious feeling and childhood experiences (Brief Motivational Interventio) increasing problem • Understand client's history and childhood (Lynda as a awareness • Principle of "Informed Consent"  **only about 2-3% of the gamblers o Cornerstone of the professional code of ethics caretaker when she was young) o Therapist must ensure that the client: • Family origin issues going back in time and see how would seek treatment  Understands the treatment origin issues are being played out throughout the client's life o Website and telehealth (Skype) can replace or supplement face-to-face meetings  Exercises volition when agreeing to • Clients are not aware of these issues (unconscious • Multiple Benefits to technology mediated clinical practice participate (coerced treatment unethical) aspects of the psyche) • Canadian Code of Ethical Practice • No emphasis on the dreams o Accessibility o o Affordability Adopted by CPA in 2000 o Anonymity  anonymous makes people more o If violated, license will be taken away • Empirically validated therapy  different types of o 4 Principles therapists must adhere to: therapies are effective for specific disorders likely to seek help  P1: Respect for the dignity of the • Biologically intervention  medications can be • Applications (examples) o Videoconferencing to interview or treat, email client helpful for the short-term but might not be fully effective psychotherapy, interactive Internet sites, online  P2: care provided will be responsible Lecture 2 (Jan 15)  Current Controversies in Clinical Psychology - to the needs, desires, preferences of the client Contemporary issues (Ch. 3) psychotherapy programs  P3: healing relationship will be one of o Virtual reality therapeutic experience 4 Contemporary Issues systematic desensitization (virtual experience of what they integrity 1. Evidence-based treatments/manualized therapy  P4: care provided will be responsible 2. The influence of technology fear) to the society 3. Ethnics o Computer-based self-instruction (not always • Ethics of Extra-Therapeutic Relationships empirically proven) 4. Postmodern Developments o Therapist/client interaction through hand-held o The therapist can only have a singular Issue #1: Evidence-based Treatments/Manualized Therapy relationship with the client • Assumption: Practice should be based on science (EBT) devices (ex. cell phones, Smartphone apps) o Dual relationships may qualify as ethical • Important to base practice (the profession of CP) on o "6 Pillars of Self Esteem" by Nathaniel Branden o **some of the examples are new thus might violations science (the discipline of CP) not be empirically validated o Dual relationships can threaten principles of o Narrative treatment places strong emphasis o Disconnected client (ex. familial influences on "beneficence" and "dignity" on: alcoholic treatment outcome) o Examples: sexual intimacy with client, sexual  Seeing client's life through lens of "Rugged Individualism" has been an implicit value harassment, employing a client, becoming friends with a theatrical metaphor and they are the protagonists • Value has been placed on masculine traits of character client (exploitation of client)  Each life is an embodied story • Ex. Marlboro ad with a man on horse o Harming client violates the principle of  Clients organize their understandings Historical principles underlying models of psychopathology beneficence (do no harm) using story-like themes and treatment Lecture 3 (Jan 22)  Current Controversy #4 o Narrative therapy involves: • Individualism historical model Confidentiality  Articulating (assessing) a client's • Internal locus of causality (internal problems) vs. • Typically, client info is "privileged" storyline of their past, their present and their future contextual (external; cultural and social factors) • It is private, not for third parties  Helping client to "re-tell" the story of• Models of the "self skin encapsulated ego • But, controversial "gray" areas their life (disconnected in and out of itself) • Examples of difficult ethical dilemmas  Help the client to re-cast their "role" o Focusing on the inside (the problem is within o Ex. working with children, client is HIV positive, in the story the individual) client is potentially dangerous (forensic clinical psych)  Ex. from "victim" to "hero" or • Emphasis on self-sufficiency (rely on self to solve "heroine" or survivor" new self-concept or identity Issue #4: Postmodern Developments in CP problems) • Driven by increased cultural diversity • Miscellaneous new treatments • Also emphasis on personal responsibility • Diversity related to: ethnicity, sexual orientation, religiono Transpersonal counseling  emphasizes • Independence  rugged individualism (in both clients and therapists) that there is a spiritual plane beyond the human reality • Historical role of therapitthe role of dominance, • Skepticism/Questions/uncertainty about universality of: (helps the client tune their psyche with mindfulness authority and power as processes that influence treatment CP theories and therapies medications; the important of awareness and self- outcome • Divergent meaning of sign on door of head of CP awareness)  very spiritual but not religious • De-emphasis on interpersonal processes such as department o Christian counseling  emphasizes the cooperation, empathy, harmony, etc. o Rosenbaum, 1992 trip to India importance of marriage and family (importance of honesty) • Q: Are Western models of abnormal and treatment o "Please Do Not Knock"  it means just walk in o LGBT treatment (Having a positive identity, universal? No. there "coming out" issues) o Issue is "generalizabilit" awareness of o Must consider different cultural meanings o Brief Therapy  ex. Brief Motivational cultural specificity different things means differently in different cultures Intervention (BMI) motivate people to go to interventions Critics of Western Models (Individualism) • Postmodern Treatment Approaches  Aka time-limited or time-sensitive • Feminist scholars "Women's Growth in Connection" o   Multicultural counseling/multicultural therapists treatment  6 sessions or less treatment implication of feminist viewpoint o Requires sensitivity/awareness of  Ex. people with a phobia • Multiculturalists, ecological psychologists (emphasis on customs/assumptions/belief systems of other cultures  Mostly behavioural, cognitive- social context), anthropologists, sociologisscriticize o Ex. role of religion and spirituality in hispanic behavioural therapists western models client's mental health • Professional treatment in Tandem with Community Multiculturalism Expresses the Postmodern Philosophy of o Ex. role of shame and "losing face" in Asian Support Groups Science client's mental health o Ex. Alcoholic Anonymous • Feminist therapy • Is a new vision of psychology the postmodern vision o There is a sense of non-prejudice and support • As a science and practice o Becoming more main stream because of in the group • 2 new assumptions: diversity o "Natural change" vs. professionally assisted 1) In regards human nature, there is no one universal o A radical departure from "masculine" change "truth"  Linear logic, Hierarchical power  Natural change is "do it yourself" 2)"truth" is relatie what is true in one minority group in one distribution programs, not professional  ex. weight-watcher culture may not be true of another minority group in another o o Mutual-aid support groups (in real life) More holistic (meaning broader in scope) culture o Greater value on community and o Virtual support groups (online) no stigma o Treatment must respect the unique beliefs and connectedness (more sense of connection) because you're anonymous unique values of the culture of a client's family of origin o Greater :contextualization" of client difficultiesture 4 (Jan 29) --> Cultural Issues Cultural Issue #1 o Avoidance of "pathologizing" women APE - Class demonstration of cultural diversity • The population is diverse, particularly in certain o Strong "valuation" of women's unique • Ethno-cultural diversity increases in recent years (first-, areas/cities experience of life unique means different from men's second-, third-generation) o Ethnic and other diversity in US & Canada • Majority group used to be Caucasian o 20% of US schoolchildren speak a language • Constructivism & Narrative Psychotherapies o Personal constructs what things means to • Diversity also includes sex orientation, religious beliefs other than English at home the client, how the client sees the world • A major contemporary issue is facing the challenge of Cultural Issue #2 o diversity • Incorporating our cultural knowledge into our theories Rewriting a client's history in terms of how they and therapies so that clients from the cultural minority group sees the world and what things meant to them • Historically, most models of psychopathology (study of o Constructivism places strong emphasis on: disorders) and therapeutic remediation (treatment) would not feel alienated or confused  Cognitive construal of reality o Have been developed by heterosexual white • Multiculturalism: The "4 Force" males (hence a limitation to research; narrow insight) o Some argue that multiculturalism is the  Mental representation of one's o "problem" Have reflected or expressed northern European defining issue of the current generation of psychology  Not interested in objective truth but (Western) cultural values Professional Efforts to Emphasize Issues of Culture: 1 care about the subjective truth because that is what things o These theories emphasize an "individualistic" • Journals and books on cultural topics perspective for understanding abnormal symptoms and • 5 New APA divisions: Society for the Psychology of means to the client subjectively  Evaluating and modifying client's treatment Women (35), Psychology of Religion (36), Society for the "world-view" in treatment o Historical lack of attention (a neglect) to life Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues (44), Helping a client find new meaning in context factors (and this is being corrected factors Society for the Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (45), Society for  the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity (51) life (meaning making/constructing significance) including families and friends and their values Video - "Different Strokes: Nurture and Human Diversity" • By doing so, one becomes less egocentric (seeing things • Violating "norms" of expected behaviour (deviating from • If 50% accounts for genes, what parts of environmental from your own perspectives only) the social norms) factors account for the remaining portion in an individual? • Also, realize that differences are not deficiencies • Disability refers to problems or difficulties in following • Growing up in the same family doesn’t mean they have Cultural Competence: Knowledge life domains of functioning: interpersonal, occupational, same personality • Can be gained by educational, etc. • Non-shared environment influence personality o Reading and direct experiences Subjective Distress • Pre-natal environment, peers, and cultural diversity o Relationships with people of various cultures • Someone feels troubled by the abnormal symptoms • Peers are very influential when children are in their o Asking client to explain cultural meaning (to a • Exception: Psychopaths don’t feel abnormal or alcoholics adolescences, not their parent limited extent) might be in denial of their symptoms • Culture  norms, beliefs, values, and rules that make a o Remember there are exceptions to cultural • Feelings of fear/anxiety, anger, etc. society trends  beware of stereotypes • Either client or significant others • Culture effects how parents interact with the children Atypical or Unexpected "Behaviour"  Metaphor  ex. Asian men tend to be relatively short, but • TRIOS (time, rhythm, creativity, story-telling, Yao Ming is 7'6 • The behaviours or symptoms that are outside of the spirituality) Cultural Competence: Clinical Skills cultural norms • Spirituality there is an intersection between the living • Assessment, measuring, providing therapeutic services • Statistically rare given the context Mental Illness and the dead • Therapeutic techniques should be consistent with the values • Individualism  mainstream American culture  and life experiences of each client • Like "abnormality", mental illness is difficult to define attributes that are internal within an individual (think about • "Talk therapy" may work better for some cultural groups than conceptually and assess in clinical settings • 4th edition of DSM is the official diagnostic system for what you believe and what you feel and express it) for others • Interdependent  Asian culture think about what • Some cultural groups may respond more positively to "action" judging the presence or absence of mental illness others think about you, think from their perspective and than "insight" Psychiatric Diagnostic Classification behave respectively • Classification is central to all sciences • Basic principle is grouping together like phenomena; • Differences between sexes o Biological characteristics set life tasks which Lecture 5 (Feb 5)  Clinical Assessment: Diagnosis and patterns of symptoms grouped in clusters differ in different societies Classification • Assignment of client symptoms to pre-established o categories based on shared common attributes Research shows no gender differences in Video  Bias in Diagnosis: Is Premenstrual Dysphoric • Prototype matching assigning client to a disorders by expression or emotion Disorder a Mental Disorder?  • Race separates us in terms of cognitive and social • PMDD  whether to continue to be listed on the official matching his/her symptoms information Examples of Non-DSM Classification Schemes disorder diagnosis • International Classification of Diseases and Health • How we look at different cultures in our own ey
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