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Psychology 46-333 Midterm: Cheat Sheet for Midterm 2

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University of Windsor
Kenneth Hart

Feb 26 Lecture • Pathological lying 2. Clinical psychologists (therapists) focus on dyadic treatment rather than group VIDEO  Law, Dangerousness, and Mental Dysfunction: Was Jeffrey • Cunning and manipulativeness treatment • Clients seek therapies because they are troubled by their self-concept (concept Dahmer Not Guilty By Reason of Insanity? • Lack of remorse or guilt • Jeffrey Dahmer had trouble describing details about the victims' deaths after• Shallow affect (superficial emotional responsiveness); emotionally dead of who we are; our identity they are alienated from their true identity killing them • Callousness and lack of empathy • Humanistic, psychodynamic, cognitive therapists care about what you think • Lack of conformity to commit killings about yourself; behavioural therapists don't care • Parasitic lifestyle • He was legally insane because he had a mental disorder called necrophilia • Poor behavioural controls/impulse control and impulsivity • Not from video: **Court of law rules he knew right from wrong and was able • High levels of sexual promiscuity Focus on Overarching Issues to control his actions (not involuntary)** • Lack of realistic long-term goals • "pan-treatment" issues vs. Treat-specific • General questions about psychotherapy (Treatment) • Irresponsibility Forensic Clinical Psychology • Failure to accept responsibility for own actions (externalizing responsibilities)sue #1: "how and why does treatment work?" (discussed in class) • Jeffre Dahmer (1960-1994) • Issue #2: "Does treatment really help?" (discussed in textbook) o Serial killer and sex offender • Issue #3: Why would different treatments be equally effective? (discussed in o Defining the Insanity Defence Murdered 17 men and boys • Defendant is found "guilty" but less criminally responsible for their actions textbook) o Murders involved rape, dismemberment, necrophilia & cannibalism • Not criminal responsibility due to presence of a mental defect or disorder o "common factors" explanation  they work because they have common o But pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity (NCRMD) factors ("active ingredients") o The juries found him sane o All effective therapies share in common the same fundamental elements • Definition of Forensic Clinical Psychology The Insanity Defense: Can Mitigate Legal Punishment of Criminal Action o Vs. therapy technique o The practical application of psychological theory, methods and research to:• Nature of the Insanity Defense Plea o Examples of "common factors" o The legal and criminal justice system o Legal statement by the accused of "not guilty" because of insanity at time of • Therapeutic relationship ("alliance"), Hope, Attention o Law enforcement (police) and the courts crime • Aka "non-specific factors" o **when clinical psychology intersects with the law o If successful, results in defendant going to a treatment facility  Aspects of treatment, clients, therapists, and the relationship between Topics of Concern to FP: American Law Institute Standard the client and the therapist • Witness memory (Credibility issues), Untrue confessions, Detection of lying • Level of awareness of right vs. wrong Two Major Models (aka theoretical framework) and deceit, Psychology of jury selection, Psychology of expert testimony • Diminished capacity for self-control • Frank's Model • Assessment o Child custody/parental evaluations, appointment of a guardian ad litem, Facts about the insanity defense (Used in less than 1% of criminal cases) • Lambert & Ogles' model • Norcross's review of the evidence base (evidence/science based) neutral third party safeguards child's rights o Assessment to predict dangerousness (in cases of someone being released) Defining the Insanity Defense Jerome Frank's Common Factors Model o Self-harm (ex. suicide risks) and other harm • Mental Defect judged to interfere with rationality • MD may also provide an excusing circumstance • Popularized his model in 1970s • Evaluation (ex. suspects, parole decision) • It assumes: • Determining legal competency to stand trial • Ex. MD may cause person to not know right from wrong o A demoralized client (poor functioning) • Determining criminal responsibility (ex. the "insanity" defense) • Mental defect or disorder may also render the illegal act involuntary o • Consultations with law enforcement A distressed client o A client who is unable to resolve their problem by themselves • Police employment decisions Other legally-Relevant Psychological Conditions o Client seeks help from a professional who provides healing services • Not much criminal profiling to assist in solving crimes (unlike on TV); • Post-Partum Psychotic Depression o Common factors include: science is lacking in this area • The Battered Women Syndrome o Made famous in Canada by 1990 court ruling resulting from 1982 case of • Socially sanctioned healing setting • Fitness for duty evaluations (ex. PTSD) • Provision of a believable rationale for pathology and for healing • Mental health services to officers and their families (directly or making Jane Hurshman (in Halifax) • Provision of a healing ritual referrals) o Murdered her husband • Victim impact assessment (identification of treatment services: o Was proven in court husband abused her for many year prior her crime o **therapy tend to be less effective if one of these factors is missing o Hurshman pleaded guilty to manslaughter and served easy and short time o To modify emotional well-being of victim, criminal behaviour of Healing, according to Frank's Model, consists of: perpetrator o Reasonable apprehension of her own death made her less culpable legally • Restoration of morale, hope (a sense of self-efficacy, beliefs that there will be • Research (to improve understandings of the causes and cures of criminal o Book was written about the case "Life After Billy" and movie behaviour and the consequences of those who are harmed) o In 1982, she was sentenced to 6 months and served 2 months success in the future) • Improved morale and hope consist of "common factors" o 10 years after murder of her husband, she was found dead in her car in College of Psychologists of Ontario Requirements to Practice Forensic Halifax (apparently committed suicide) Hope (aka Frank's "Morale") Psychology o Fatal self inflicted gunshot wound • Forensic psychologists have a PhD in clinical psych and specialized training • Some view this as a "placebo effect" • Aka optimism The Client's Right to Confidentiality vs. The Psychologists Ethical Duty to • Giving the client positive outcome expectancies Understanding Risk of Violence (Seung Hui Cho  Virginia tech killing) Warn • Sometimes a conflict of interests • Strength of the client's belief that the treatment will work Forensic Evaluation of a Person's Risk for Violence • Client's belief in treatment efficacy • Client confidentiality • Confidence (faith/trust) that treatment will bring relief of symptoms • Highly recommended tests  "Psychopathology Checklist Revised" by • Normally, the client's personal information is protected against disclosure • Strength of anticipated benefits Canadian scholar Robert Hare, 1991 • Exceptions • Dr. Hare is an expert on "psychopathy charming psychopaths who o Limitation on client confidentiality Lambert & Ogles (2004)  Model of Common Factors (see Ch.11) manipulate others for selfish ends with no remorse o Murder of Taraoff • A tripartite model (3 classes of common factos)support, learning, action 20 Domains of Assessment on the PCR (of being a psychopath) March 5 Lecture • Glib and superficial charm General (Basic) Issues in Treatment Therapeutic Alliance • Very strong research base • Grandiose (exaggeratedly high estimation of self) 1. Why does treatment work? (assumes treatment does work) • Over 2000 studies have shown "alliance" or "relationship" processes early in • Need for stimulation (hate being bored; seeking thrills) treatment predicts treatment outcome among adults (Horvath & Bedi, 2002) • Better alliance/relationship is associated with better/more therapeutic o Learn to incompatible resposecalming techniques (relaxed breathing, o Statistical prediction methods (aka known as actuarial prediction methods) improvement muscle relaxation by Jacobson) predict dangerousness using individual's characteristics (stats) in  o You develop a hierarchy of feared objects (most feared object is at the tocomparison to dangerous behaviours What is "Therapeutic Alliance"? (Part 1) o Once the client is relaxed, he/she is exposed to the fear (graded exposure• Dispositional variables, such as age, race, sex, social class, and • Positive mutual emotional bonding gradually exposed to the fear) personality variables • Not only on part of the client but also the therapist o Originally developed by Joseph Wolpe • Historical variables, such as history of violence, work history, mental • Ex. trust, liking, respect, caring o Client is taught to prevent arousal of anxiety by confronting feared stimuluhealth history, and criminal history while in a calm state • Contextual variables, such as current social supports, presence or • Flooding availability of weapons, and current stress level Defining Therapeutic Alliance (Part 2) o Clients are put directly into a phobic situation (example of Danny) • Clinical variables, such as current mental disorders, drug and alcohol • 2nd dimension goal congruence o Aka exposure therap exposure to the fear provoking situation abuse, and overall level of functioning o Consensus about the goals of the treatment • Base rate problem report the incidence of something (incidents in the o Commitment to the goals of treatment population); it is a problem because it is so low o • Aversion Therapy Shared sense of partnership in reaching treatment goals (being on the samo Abnormal behaviour is paired with a noxious stimulus o When base rate is low, it is hard to identify the true positives and true team and achieve a common goal; a sense of teamwork) o Different from negative reinforcement because it uses unpleasant or painfulegatives stimuli (inflicting pain) o So they lean towards false positive (ex. someone is LIKELY to be violent March 12 Lecture than he/she really is) o Ex. antabuse for drinking behaviour Danny: Child Phobia (Video) o Ex. "rubber band theor" every time the person thinks about the fear, • Fear of dogs (possibly a dog jumped up at him when he was in a stroller) flick the rubber band to inflict pain (so the pain pairs with the thought)Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) • Can't go to other people's house with dogs and go to school on his own • In US legal syste someone commits crime at free will must be punished • Parents hope his phobia will outgrow but it gets worse • Social-learning Therapy o Clients observe models' desirable behaviours being reinforced • Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) If an individual was unable to • Heart rate rises before and after seeing a dog o Imitation of models (participant modeling) control his or her actions due to a mental disorder— even if such actions were • Heart rate almost doubles when he sees a dog; a fight or flight response o Social-skills training (behavioural rehearsal; role-playing) criminal in nature— the individual would not be held responsible for the • Behavioural treatment crime o First sessin exposure to a dog on a leash with other dogs running Ch.19 Notes  Forensic Psych • 4 Misconceptions of NGRI around in the park elsewhere • Forensic psychology  the application of psychological methods and o NGRI is used frequently (less than 1% uses this defense) o Second session getting closer to a dog and tried touching the dog o People think it is often successful (only 25% of those 1% were successful) principles within the legal system (for clinical psychologists) o • Danny took four sessions to enjoy being with dogs through exposure • Otto and Heilbrun (2002) called forensic psychological assessment “ the People think NGRI defendants are often released and not institutionalized treatment psychological assessment of persons for the purpose of assisting the legal fact fact very uncommon; most are in mental hospitals)
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