Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology 48-101 Midterm: Review Guide

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Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology

Midterm Review Guide Sociology  What is sociology? o It is a Science that constructs theories about social relationships making up a society.  What are characteristics of sociology? o Sociology looks at the society as a whole o Focus on knowledge o They observer, experiment, compare and predict  a science o Different from psychology  more individual focus o Different from social workers  they are action orientated  What is sociological imagination? o Makes you think the original problem is social, outside the individual  Who coined "sociology"? o Auguste Comte  Progress in every branch of knowledge goes through 3 stages:  Theological  God's decision  Metaphysical   Positive   More and more science took over their life thus les and less become unknown to them  What are key sociological theories? o Functionism  everything in society has a certain function; if everything functions, the society would be in an equilibrium (Durkheim, Parsons) o Conflict Theory  society is divided in dimensions; some have more, some have less; this creates conflicts because the people who have less want more  Marx  the society is based on class struggle (in order to live, we have to eat; in order to eat, we have to produce; those who control the production process also control other aspects of the society) o Symbolic interactionism (ex. gestures, language)  how I perceive what you mean o Feminism  patriarchy (system where males dominate); focuses on equality on both sexes (economic, politically and social)  What roles do values play in sociology? o Selection of subjects o The way that experiment results are interpreted o It can never reach the truth; truth itself is subjective Social Research  What is social research?  What are steps in doing research? o Selecting a topic  finding your interest o The topic becomes a question  is there a relationship between….? o Read what other researchers say about the topic/research question o From there, where do we go? Find a method that is appropriate for research. How should we collect data? Should we choose surveys, interviews, or observe people? o Analyze the data that was collected o We publish the data, reporting the data o **the more researcher come to the same conclusion, the closer we are to the truth  What are sociological methods? o Field research, experiment, questionnaires, surveys, observation  What is operationalization? o The process of conceptualizing, defining, and measuring it  Using a variable to a concept (ex. measuring income to categorize social class)  Key factor: your theoretical model  What are reliability and validity?  Select a research question and a method, describe and give examples for the research process Culture  Define culture in 4 words: shared product of society  What is the relationship between culture and society? o Without society, we would not have culture  What are some of the characteristics of primates and/or humans? o Vocal, sociabili
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