Midterm Review Guide
What is sociology?
o It is a Science that constructs theories about social relationships making up a
What are characteristics of sociology?
o Sociology looks at the society as a whole
o Focus on knowledge
o They observer, experiment, compare and predict a science
o Different from psychology more individual focus
o Different from social workers they are action orientated
What is sociological imagination?
o Makes you think the original problem is social, outside the individual
Who coined "sociology"?
o Auguste Comte
Progress in every branch of knowledge goes through 3 stages:
Theological God's decision
More and more science took over their life thus les and less become unknown
What are key sociological theories?
Functionism everything in society has a certain function; if everything functions,
the society would be in an equilibrium (Durkheim, Parsons)
o Conflict Theory society is divided in dimensions; some have more, some have less;
this creates conflicts because the people who have less want more
Marx the society is based on class struggle (in order to live, we have to eat;
in order to eat, we have to produce; those who control the production
process also control other aspects of the society)
o Symbolic interactionism (ex. gestures, language) how I perceive what you mean
o Feminism patriarchy (system where males dominate); focuses on equality on
both sexes (economic, politically and social)
What roles do values play in sociology?
o Selection of subjects
o The way that experiment results are interpreted
o It can never reach the truth; truth itself is subjective
What is social research?
What are steps in doing research?
o Selecting a topic finding your interest
o The topic becomes a question is there a relationship between….?
o Read what other researchers say about the topic/research question
o From there, where do we go? Find a method that is appropriate for research. How
should we collect data? Should we choose surveys, interviews, or observe people?
o Analyze the data that was collected
o We publish the data, reporting the data o **the more researcher come to the same conclusion, the closer we are to the truth
What are sociological methods?
o Field research, experiment, questionnaires, surveys, observation
What is operationalization?
o The process of conceptualizing, defining, and measuring it
Using a variable to a concept (ex. measuring income to categorize social class)
Key factor: your theoretical model
What are reliability and validity?
Select a research question and a method, describe and give examples for the research
Define culture in 4 words: shared product of society
What is the relationship between culture and society?
o Without society, we would not have culture
What are some of the characteristics of primates and/or humans?
o Vocal, sociabili