BUS-3240 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cognitive Dissonance, Drive Theory, Expectancy Theory
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Consumer Behaviour – Exam 2
Chapter 4 – Motivation and Values
Motivation – The processes that cause people to behave as they do. Occurs when a need
is aroused that a consumer wishes to satisfy.
Drive – A degree of arousal that determines the urgency of someone to meet a need.
Motivational Strength – The degree to which a person is willing to expend energy to
reach one goal as opposed to another. This reflects their underlying motivation to reach
•Can be biological or learned (drive theory vs. expectancy theory)
Drive Theory – Focuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal. We
strive to reduce these tensions to achieve homeostasis (balance)
Expectancy Theory – Suggests that behavior is largely pulled by expectations of
achieving desirable outcomes (pos. incentives) rather than pushed from within.
•Want – A form of consumption used to satisfy a need.
oBiogenic – Food, air, water, shelter
oPsychogenic – Status, power affiliation
oUtilitarian – Objective, tangible attributes (ex. # of calorie intake)
oHedonic – Subjective, experiential (ex. Need to excitement)
Types of Motivational Conflicts
•Approach-Approach – Two desirable alternatives – leads to cognitive dissonance
•Approach – Avoidance – Pos and neg alternatives – guilt of desire occurs ex. Fur,
fast food (tastes good, but terrible for you)
•Avoidance – Avoidance – Choice between two undesirable alternatives (paying to
fix an old car, or buying a new car)
Cognitive Dissonance – Tension is created when beliefs or behaviours conflict with one
another. Ex. Smoking is bad for you, but I really want a cigarette.
Specific Needs and Buying Behavior
•Need for achievement – Place premium on products that signify success
•Need for affiliation – Products/services that alienate loneliness
•Need for power (control) – Hotels, restaurants, create a sense of mastery – you are
being waited on.
•Need for uniqueness – Clothing, etc. Asserting one’s identity.
MASLOWS: Physiological, Safety, Belongingness, Esteem (Ego), Self-Actualization
Involvement – Defined as “a person’s perceived relevance of an object – based on their
interests, needs, values, and interests”. Attachment to products.
•Involvement triggered by antecedents – either personal traits, objects/stimulus, or
Inertia – Consumption at the low end of involvement, decisions are made out of habit
(lack of motivation)
Flow State – An optimal experience that includes a sense of playfulness, feeling of
control, mental enjoyment of activity, highly focused attention, and distorted sense of
time. Occurs when consumers are truly involved. Ex. Surfing amazon.com
Cult Products – Command fierce customer loyalty and worship between consumers and
brand. Ex. Apple
Product Involvement – Consumers level of interest in a product.
Mass Customization – Personalization of products/services for individual customers at a
mass production price.
Marketing Performances – Turn public places into advertising stages when hosting
events. Ex. Flash mobs, concert series, etc.
Interactive Mobile Marketing – Consumers participate in real-time promotional
campaigns via mobile devices. Ex. Voting for American Idol.
Strategies to Increase Involvement
•Appeal to consumers hedonic (sensory) needs – ads.
•Use novel stimuli – unusual cinematography, sudden silences
•Prominent stimuli – bright, fast, loud, bigger
•Build a bond w/ consumers – relationship marketing.
Purchase Situation Involvement – Differences that occur when buying the same item for
different contexts. Ex. Gift for boss vs. distant cousin
Value – A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite. Ex. Looking younger is
better than looking older.
•Value System – The relative importance, or ranking, of a culture’s universal
Enculturation – Learning the beliefs/values of ones own culture. Taught to us by
Acculturation – Learning the values/beliefs of another culture. Ex. Trying to understand
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
•Power Distance – Less powerful members accept power is not distributed equally.
•Individualism – Degree to which individuals are integrated into groups
•Masculinity – Distribution of roles between genders.
•Uncertainty Avoidance – Society’s tolerance for uncertainty/ambiguity
•Long-Term Orientation – Values associated, thrift, perseverance
oShort-Term – Respect for tradition, fulfilling social objectives
Rokeach Value Survey
•Terminal Values – Desired end states (ex. A sense of accomplishment, wisdom)
•Instrumental Values – Actions needed to achieve these end states (ex. Capability,
List of Values (LOV) Scale
•Identifies 9 consumer segments based on values they endorse. Relates each value
to differences in consumer behaviors. Ex. Those that support sense of belonging
read Readers Digest, but those that support entertainment read TV Guide.
Means-End Chain Model
•Very specific product attributes are linked at levels of increasing abstraction to
terminal values. Creates alternative means to reach “end states”
•A laddering techinique uncovers consumer associations b/t specific attributes and
general consequences. Ex. “mind map”
Voluntary Simplifiers – People who believe that once basic material needs are met,
additional income does not add to happiness.
Conscientious Consumerism – A focus on personal health merging with a growing
interest in global health.
LOHAS (Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability)
•Worry about environment and want products to be produced in sustainable way.
•Spend money to advance what they see as their personal development/potential.
Carbon Footprint – Measures, in units of C02, the impact of human activity on the
environment in terms of amount of greenhouse gases produced.
Materialism – The importance people attach to worldly possessions. They value
possession for their own status and appearance.