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International Marketing Final Exam Review

Course Code
Satyendra Singh
Study Guide

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-Exam will be cumulative. Be precise and concise.
-Same format as mid-term:
-4-5 S.A. (definition type, concept based questions) approx. 1 page
=2 L.A. approx. 2 pages
-Some individual and group presentation stuff might be on exam
-Key concepts: 3 new PΝ›s (people, process and physical evidence), brands, definitions of service,
stages of international marketing, SRC and ethnocentrism, ethno, poly and geo centric stuff,
International product life cycle, pricing strategies, 5 CΝ›s of distribution, strategic decisions in
international expansion, international market entry strategies, steps in business negotiations
-Yξ€•ξ€ξ€Œξ€—ξ€†ξ€‡ξ€•ξ€ξ€„ξ€žξ€Šξ€Œξ€ˆξ€Žξ€„ξ€Œξ€ˆξ€Žξ€Ÿξ€€ξ€Šξ€„ξ€‡ξ€‹ξ€›ξ€Šξ€€ξ€“ξ€‚ξ€„ξ€‡ξ€‹ξ€Œξ€ξ€‚ξ€ƒξ€„Brand image may not be consistent across countries 
- ξ€Šξ€€ξ€Žξ€šξ€ξ€ξ€„!ξ€‚ξ€Œξ€ξ€šξ€Šξ€‚ξ€•ξ€Ÿ"ξ€šξ€†ξ€ξ€šξ€Šξ€Œξ€†ξ€„ξ€žξ€Œξ€Šξ€Šξ€‡ξ€‚ξ€Šξ€•ξ€ƒ
-Canned products are not perceived as healthy products

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-Different message in different country
-Bicycle recreational in Canada vs. Transport in Holland/China
-Γ°ξ€Œξ€ˆξ€ξ€šξ€Œξ€ξ€‚ξ€„ξ€Ÿ#ξ€‡ξ€Œξ€†ξ€‚ξ€ξ€ξ€•ξ€ƒ 200 in India, 30 in Arab, 50 in Israel
-ξ€ξ€‚ξ€Žξ€‡ξ€Œξ€„Γ°ξ€‡ξ€‹ξ€‡ξ€ξ€Œξ€ξ€‡ξ€€ξ€ˆξ€•ξ€ƒ So many per year, no programming during working hours
-Respect culture, poor quality magazine but high circulation
-Adjust media, billboard may be cost-effective, no printing required
-Γ°ξ€‚ξ€ξ€Œξ€†ξ€„"ξ€€ξ€ˆξ€•ξ€ξ€Šξ€Œξ€‡ξ€ˆξ€ξ€•ξ€ƒ Ban on certain products Ν΄ drugs, liquors, tobacco
-ξ€…ξ€“ξ€Œξ€‡ξ€†ξ€Œξ€—ξ€‡ξ€†ξ€‡ξ€ξ€œξ€ƒ too few or too many available advertisements
-"ξ€€ξ€“ξ€‚ξ€Šξ€Œξ€ξ€‚$ξ€„ξ€‹ξ€‚ξ€Žξ€‡ξ€Œξ€„ξ€Œξ€›ξ€›ξ€Šξ€€ξ€›ξ€Šξ€‡ξ€Œξ€ξ€‚ξ€ˆξ€‚ξ€•ξ€•ξ€ƒξ€„media may be political, need different media to gain wider
coverage, video vans, putting ads on cement-mixer, boats...
-"Do negotiate: it is subject to negotiations; depends on your bargain ability. Costs of
coverage varies (ex. Belgium $1.5/customer vs. $6 Italy).
-ξ‚Œξ€‚ξ€”ξ€•ξ€›ξ€Œξ€›ξ€‚ξ€Šξ€ƒξ€„Difficult to get space in Time magazine. Possible to buy editorial space in some
-Contextual priming effect: Recent research has shown that an ad context (e.g.,
magazine articles or adjacent advertisements) can affect the interpretation of ambiguous
product information in the ad by priming or activating certain product attributes in consumers'
knowledge. The product attributes primed by the ad context may result in the formation or
change of beliefs about the advertised brand, thereby affecting consumers' evaluations of the
brand. Such effects of the ad context are called "contextual priming effects".
-ξ€ξ€Œξ€ξ€Œ%ξ€‡ξ€ˆξ€‚ξ€ƒξ€„Some countries have no space so select twice as many advertisements then select
half by raffle. Foreign edition of home magazine may be useful. Restrictions in some countries
(10% of space and 5% of advertising time can only be allocated in Vietnam).
&ξ€Œξ€Žξ€‡ξ€€ξ€„ξ€Œξ€ˆξ€Žξ€„ξ€’ξ€˜'ξ€˜ξ€ƒξ€„people today are obsessed with T.V.. Check for restrictions.
(ξ€ξ€ξ€‚ξ€Šξ€„ξ€ξ€‚ξ€Žξ€‡ξ€Œξ€ƒξ€„Advertisements on vehicles to serve as a moving billboards; drivers will show
their usual driving pattern and routes.

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Yξ€ξ€ξ€ˆξ€€ξ€ξ€‚ξ€ˆξ€ξ€Šξ€‡ξ€ξ€ƒξ€„everywhere the same sales force as at home.
- ξ€€ξ€†ξ€œξ€ξ€‚ξ€ˆξ€ξ€Šξ€‡ξ€ξ€ƒξ€„separate and distinct. I.e. local sales force for each foreign market
&ξ€‚ξ€ξ€‡ξ€€ξ€ξ€‚ξ€ˆξ€ξ€Šξ€‡ξ€ξ€ƒξ€„separate and distinct sales force for each region (group of similar countries)
-*ξ€‚ξ€€ξ€ξ€‚ξ€ˆξ€ξ€Šξ€‡ξ€ξ€ƒξ€„one sales force for all countries worldwide.
Other Factors in Personal Selling:
-+ξ€Žξ€‚ξ€ˆξ€ξ€‡ξ€‰ξ€œξ€„#ξ€‚ξ€ξ€‡ξ€•ξ€‡ξ€€ξ€ˆξ€„ξ€ξ€Œ,ξ€‚ξ€Šξ€ƒ individual, group, top-boss, by vote..
-"ξ€€ξ€ˆξ€ξ€‡ξ€ˆξ€šξ€‚ξ€„ξ‚Œξ€‚ξ€ξ€€ξ€ξ€‡ξ€Œξ€ξ€‡ξ€€ξ€ˆξ€•ξ€„ξ€Œξ€‰ξ€ξ€‚ξ€Šξ€„#ξ€‚ξ€Œξ€†ξ€„ξ€‡ξ€•ξ€„"ξ€†ξ€€ξ€•ξ€‚ξ€Žξ€ƒξ€„signing a contract is just the beginning; work
together to problem solve and build relationships (Chinese managers).
-Do not switch managers in the middle of negotiations
-!ξ€€ξ€Šξ€ξ€‚ξ€„!ξ€Šξ€‡ξ€‚ξ€ˆξ€Žξ€•ξ€ξ€‡ξ€›ξ€ƒξ€„i.e. Columbia, Scotland, South Asian countries
-ξ€žξ€‚ξ€„Yξ€“ξ€‡ξ€Žξ€‚ξ€ˆξ€ξ€‚ξ€‘ξ€žξ€Œξ€•ξ€‚ξ€Žξ€ƒξ€„data and empirical evidence that supports your sales proposition. Some
countries have no need for flashy materials (i.e. Germany).
ξ€‘Γ°ξ€‚ξ€Œξ€Šξ€ˆξ€„ξ€ξ€€ξ€„&ξ€‚ξ€†ξ€Œξ€–ξ€ƒξ€„Some countries are casual about time and punctuality (i.e. Indians)
Yξ€•ξ€ξ€Œξ€—ξ€†ξ€‡ξ€•ξ€ξ€„"ξ€Šξ€‚ξ€Žξ€‡ξ€—ξ€‡ξ€†ξ€‡ξ€ξ€œξ€ƒξ€„In Russia, thefirst meeting is just a formality, the second meeting is about
your credibility and then the next meeting is about sales talks.
-ξ€€ξ€šξ€Šξ€„)ξ€ξ€Œξ€ξ€šξ€•ξ€ƒξ€„your business card must indicate your title in South Korea and India.
-How to attain status: Level of Education, Income and Occupation
-Do not end business after a deal is made.
-Build long-term relationships with buyers:
-Customer loyalty programs, periodic telephone calls enquiring about product
performance, always ask if there is anything you can do for them.
-Relationship building is important: large cultural distances between some buyers and sellers,
collective vs. Individualistic societies
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