Consumer Behaviour Exam 2
Chapter 4 Motivation and Values
Motivation The processes that cause people to behave as they do. Occurs when a need
is aroused that a consumer wishes to satisfy.
Drive A degree of arousal that determines the urgency of someone to meet a need.
Motivational Strength The degree to which a person is willing to expend energy to
reach one goal as opposed to another. This reflects their underlying motivation to reach
Can be biological or learned (drive theory vs. expectancy theory)
Drive Theory Focuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal. We
strive to reduce these tensions to achieve homeostasis (balance)
Expectancy Theory Suggests that behavior is largely pulled by expectations of
achieving desirable outcomes (pos. incentives) rather than pushed from within.
Want A form of consumption used to satisfy a need.
o Biogenic Food, air, water, shelter
o Psychogenic Status, power affiliation
o Utilitarian Objective, tangible attributes (ex. # of calorie intake)
o Hedonic Subjective, experiential (ex. Need to excitement)
Types of Motivational Conflicts
Approach-Approach Two desirable alternatives leads to cognitive dissonance
Approach Avoidance Pos and neg alternatives guilt of desire occurs ex. Fur,
fast food (tastes good, but terrible for you)
Avoidance Avoidance Choice between two undesirable alternatives (paying to
fix an old car, or buying a new car)
Cognitive Dissonance Tension is created when beliefs or behaviours conflict with one
another. Ex. Smoking is bad for you, but I really want a cigarette.
Specific Needs and Buying Behavior
Need for achievement Place premium on products that signify success
Need for affiliation Products/services that alienate loneliness
Need for power (control) Hotels, restaurants, create a sense of mastery you are
being waited on.
Need for uniqueness Clothing, etc. Asserting ones identity. MASLOWS: Physiological, Safety, Belongingness, Esteem (Ego), Self-Actualization
Involvement Defined as a persons perceived relevance of an object based on their
interests, needs, values, and interests. Attachment to products.
Involvement triggered by antecedents either personal traits, objects/stimulus, or
Inertia Consumption at the low end of involvement, decisions are made out of habit
(lack of motivation)
Flow State An optimal experience that includes a sense of playfulness, feeling of
control, mental enjoyment of activity, highly focused attention, and distorted sense of
time. Occurs when consumers are truly involved. Ex. Surfing amazon.com
Cult Products Command fierce customer loyalty and worship between consumers and
brand. Ex. Apple
Product Involvement Consumers level of interest in a product.
Mass Customization Personalization of products/services for individual customers at a
mass production price.
Marketing Performances Turn public places into advertising stages when hosting
events. Ex. Flash mobs, concert series, etc.
Interactive Mobile Marketing Consumers participate in real-time promotional
campaigns via mobile devices. Ex. Voting for American Idol.
Strategies to Increase Involvement
Appeal to consumers hedonic (sensory) needs ads.
Use novel stimuli unusual cinematography, sudden silences
Prominent stimuli bright, fast, loud, bigger
Build a bond w/ consumers relationship marketing.
Purchase Situation Involvement Differences that occur when buying the same item for
different contexts. Ex. Gift for boss vs. distant cousin
Value A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite. Ex. Looking younger is
better than looking older.
Value System The relative importance, or ranking, of a cultures universal
values Enculturation Learning the beliefs/values of ones own culture. Taught to us by
Acculturation Learning the values/beliefs of another culture. Ex. Trying to understand
Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions
Power Distance Less powerful members accept power is not distributed equally.
Individualism Degree to which individuals are integrated into groups
Masculinity Distribution of roles between genders.
Uncertainty Avoidance Societys tolerance for uncertainty/ambiguity
Long-Term Orientation Values associated, thrift, perseverance
o Short-Term Respect for tradition, fulfilling social objectives
Rokeach Value Survey
Terminal Values Desired end states (ex. A sense of accomplishment, wisdom)
Instrumental Values Actions needed to achieve these end states (ex. Capability,
List of Values (LOV) Scale
Identifies 9 consumer segments based on values they endorse. Relates each value
to differences in consumer behaviors. Ex. Those that support sense of belonging
read Readers Digest, but those that support entertainment read TV Guide.
Means-End Chain Model
Very specific product attributes are linked at levels of increasing abstraction to
terminal values. Creates alternative means to reach end states
A laddering techinique uncovers consumer associations b/t specific attributes and
general consequences. Ex. mind map
Voluntary Simplifiers People who believe that once basic material needs are met,
additional income does not add to happiness.
Conscientious Consumerism A focus on personal health merging with a growing
interest in global health.
LOHAS (Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability)
Worry about environment and want products to be produced in sustainable way.
Spend money to advance what they see as their personal development/potential.
Carbon Footprint Measures, in units of C02, the impact of human activity on the
environment in terms of amount of greenhouse gases produced.
Materialism The importance people attach to worldly possessions. They value
possession for their own status and appearance. Non-Materialists Value possessions that connect them to other people or
provide pleasure by using them
Chapter 5 The Self
We buy products to highlight/hide aspects of ourselves
Eastern Culture collective self (identity comes from group), interdependent self
(identity comes from relationships with others)
Western Cultures Individuality/Individual Appearance
Self-Concept Beliefs a person holds about his/her own attributes and how they evaluate
Attribute Dimensions Content, positivity, intensity, stability over time,
Self-Esteem The positivity of a persons self-concept
Low Self-Esteem Think they will not perform well.
High Self-Esteem Think they will be successful and take risks.
o Ads trigger social comparisons attractive models using products.
Real and Ideal Selves
Ideal Self A persons conception of how he/she would like to be
Actual Self More realistic appraisal of qualities we do/dont have.
Impression Management Work hard to manage what others think of us.
Fantasy Appeals Self-induced shift in consciousness
Multiple Selves Each of us has many selves/roles. Marketers pitch products to specific
role identities. Ex. Mother, daughter, wife, friend, athlete.
Virtual Identity Fictional depiction of life in Computer Mediated Environments.
Avatars represent visual identity.
Symbolic Interactionsism Relationships with others play a large part in forming
ourselves. We pattern our behavior on perceived expectations of others.
Self-Consciousness Awareness of self. Public/Self-Monitoring. How we look/dress vs.
how we act in social environments.
Consumption and Self-Concept
Identity Marketing Consumers alter some aspects of their selves to advertise for a
branded product. Ex. Tattoo.
Attachment Object more important to you if it is used to maintain self-concept.