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Final

HIST-2505 Study Guide - Final Guide: Canada Pension Plan, Jean-Marie-Rodrigue Villeneuve, Canadian Human Rights Act


Department
HISTORY
Course Code
HIST-2505
Professor
Chris Dooley
Study Guide
Final

Page:
of 37
Final Exam Review:
Part 1: Identification:
The goal of an identification answer is to define and locate a concept, figure, group, event, publication,
etc. in its wider historical context. Anwer: What, who, where, when and why does it matter?
Significance:
-What is the short/long term impact of the person, event, or idea in history.
-What theories and concepts are in play?
-What debates or conflicts were exposed, started, or partially resolved by the concept or event?
-Is the term substantively or symbolically important?
Lecture Notes from the Course:
The Winter Years: Canada in the Great Depression:
Canada after World War I:
-Failure to plan led to:
-Post War depression
-Workers Revolt in Canada
-Lack of jobs, housing ,etc.
-Strikes (ex. Winnipeg General Strike-Bloody Saturday June 26, 1919)
The Roaring 20's:
-Period of prosperity for some; rising international trade and production
-1921 was the first time in Canadian history that the number of people in cities exceeded the number of
people on farms
-Women cracked labour barrier
-Social class, gender, and racial barriers became more fluid
-People engaged in more of a service economy now (hotels, etc.)
-Gave rise to a mass consumer (mass consumption) society
-Beginning of advertising
-Age of Hollywood: movies much more popular
-Soap Opera came from radio shows that were sponsored by soap companies
-People watching became critical, simply being out and about and socializing became popular
-End of 1920's became a crisis
Capitalism in Crisis:
-Too much window shopping not enough people could afford goods
-depressed wages in 1920's; production > demand
-black Monday (October 28, 1929): stock crashes
–GNP in 4 years was cut in half
Families in the Depression:
Married men:
-find work wherever they could
-orphanages for children if single due to infections killing wives
-state looked after them the most
-bread winner ideology damaged mens psyche
Married women:
-many women abandoned b/c men couldn't provide so they were ashamed and took off
-couldn't get welfare if men weren't proven dead
Single women:
-often laid off to protect wages of married men
Single men:
-trouble makers; had to exist outside of social support so often homeless and shoplifted- worry to the
government
-lots of seasonal workers
Government response:
-ignored crisis in 1929-30: William Lyon McKenzie denied it and lost election in 1930 due to this
-R.B. Bennett treats it as a short term emergency (1930-32)
-Tariffs: raised cost of living, disastrous policy
-made federal $ available to municipalities for relief programs (public works projects)
-depression as long-term crisis (1932-35)
-22-33% unemployment
-relief and concentration campus away from city
-on to Ottawa trek and the Regina riot (from Vancouver travelled on trains) –James Gardner
-Bennett's new deal
-The King Years (1935-39)--William Lyon Mckenzie King
-caps on the dole (welfare; often in the form of cash or food stamps/vouchers)
-farm placement-disbursed single men to different farms to work
-saved by the war
New parties and the politics of protest:
-CCF (communist party)
-Social credit
-Union Nationale—Social Catholicism
Conclusion:
-Demobilization and reconstruction would be handled differently
-acceptance of economic planning
-belief in social security
Canada's War: WWII at Home and Abroad:
-WWII was a much more widely accepted war by all Canadians, including Quebec
-1.1 million in uniform and many more in war-related industries; 42,000 Canadians Killed and 56,000
injured and this doesn't include those mentally harmed; hard to adjust to civilian life after the war
-Truly a World War, took place all over the world
-Most industrial advanced economy in the world after the War
-Allowed women to gain social recognition
-Hong Kong (1941), Dieppe (1942), and Bomber Command left soldiers badly damaged
-A War on civilians; 55 million people killed worldwide; a lot of targeting of civilians to demoralize the
enemy; 150,000 people killed in Hiroshima
-Discrimination at home
Canada Enters the War:
-Canada was Great Britain's greatest ally in the war; significant supplier
-A lot of pilots were trained in Canada before the war: Commonwealth Training Program
-Poorly prepared-no conscription; lack of artillery, soldiers, defence mechanisms, etc.
-government scared to introduce conscription; voluntary enlistment
-Due to depression initial enrolment was high
-In early 1940's due to lack of soldiers; begin to recruit women. This helps battle having to introduce
conscription
-1941-45 5% of armed services were women; started off entry-level but advanced near end
-Women were highly regulated and monitored
Mobilizing for the War:
-In 1938 1/50 paid income tax but by the war 1/5 were taxed
-Significantly involved in the central planning of the economy
-By 1945 civil servants doubled; creates 28 crown corporations (Alcan, Polymer Corporation)
-Largest supplier of aluminum, plastic and rubber, and guns; CWB created to regulate grains
-Industrial Disputes Investigations Act (1907) to ensure no labour interruptions-forced conciliations
-lots of strikes, workers realized they were in high demand
-1944 first time workers had the right to unionize
Conscription Crisis:
-Beating around the bush about conscription
-Most Canadians in 1942 Plebiscite voted yes (Most Quebec residents voted no however).
-Conscription happened but those men stayed at home
-Conscientious objectors-10,000 men rejected due to personal reasons-were given different jobs
Home Front:
-Government begins to sell victory bonds to generate capital to fund the war
-Wage and price controls to keep inflation stable and cost of living down; led to rationing
-Women enter non-traditional jobs at home as well (ex. Mechanics, construction foreman, etc.)
-# of women in paid work doubles in 4 years
-1943 the government for the first time begins to operate day care centres to free women to work
-Kids didn't meet father until after the war
-A lot of work to be done to re-unify families after the war
A war for Democracy:
-1939 Defence of Canada Regulations introduced
-National Film Board largest producer of documentaries by the end of the war
-A lot of suspicion of enemies within the country; 100,000 enemy aliens registered
-Mostly fair for enemy aliens except for European Refugees and the Japanese
-Didn't except Jews from Poland and Germany and ones that were here were treated
poorly (3,000 total during war)
-National Council on Refugees (1943)...Cardinal Villeneuve
-Japanese required to evacuate B.C. Due to being successful and their background
Canada at the War's End:
-Wealthy and industrialized
-New sense of citizenship
-EI, Family allowance, day cares, labour laws, etc. all givens after the war
-New roles for women socially
-Divided by conscription, especially in Quebec
-Unresolved human rights record