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PSYC-1000 (1)

Definitions of Psychology Terms for the exam

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University of Winnipeg
Introto Psych

Psychology DefinitionsPrologue The Story of PsychologyPsychology scientific study of behaviour and mental processesEmpiricism view that a knowledge comes from experience via the senses and b science flourishes through observation and experimentStructuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mindFunctionalism a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioural processes functionhow they enable the organism to adapt survive and flourishHumanistic psychology historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growthNaturenurture issue longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behavioursNatural selection principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generationsLevels of analysis differing complementary views from biological to psychological to sociocultural for analyzing any given phenomenonBiopsychosocial approach integrated perspective that incorporates biological psychological and sociocultural levels of analysisBasic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge baseApplied research scientific study that aims to solve practical problemsCounselling psychology assists people with problems in living often related to school work or marriage and in achieving greater well beingClinical psychology a branch of psychology that studies assesses and treats people with psychological disordersPsychiatry branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders practised by physicians who sometimes provide medical drugs etc treatments as well as psychological therapyChapter 1 Thinking Critically w Psych ScienceHindsight bias tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it I knew it all along phenomenonCritical thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions Rather it examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusionsTheory explanation using integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observationsHypothesis testable prediction often implied by theoryOperational defn statement of the procedures used to define research variables For ex human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measuresReplication repeating the essence of a research study usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstancesCase study observation technique where one person is studied in depth in hopes of revealing universal principlesSurvey technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes or behaviours of people usually by questioning a representative random sample of themFalse consensus effect tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behavioursPopulation all the cases in a group from which samples may be drawn for a study does not refer to countrys whole popRandom sample fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusionNaturalistic observation observing and recording in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the sitchCorrelation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the otherScatterplot a graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the value of two variables The slope of which suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables Amount of scatter suggest strength of correlation
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