Anatomy Notes- the heart .docx

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Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 2221

-heart is anterior in the thoracic cage -apex of the heart points downwards, and to the left -the heart sits in a sac called the pericardial sac  the space within this sac is called the pericardial cavity, and it is filled with fluid so that there is no friction between the heart and surrounding structures as it beats  the sac is also anchored by the lungs and a ligament that is attached to the diaphragm -between T3 and T4 (sternal angle) is where the top of the heart lies -at T9 (xiphisternal angle) is where the bottom of the heart lies 3 Circulatory Circuits  heart is a pressure generated system, instead of just a pumping station; blood follows pressure gradient  system is split into two halves: o deoxygenated blood (right)  blue colour comes from lack of blood  but the veins are never lacking blood  darker shade of red  transparent  not technically deoxygenated, it just has been deprived of some oxygen from the tissues  carbon dioxide impedes the ability to carry oxygen, and we discard it at the lungs o oxygenated blood (left)  slightly lighter shade of red  can’t see through arteries because they are thick- walled  top half is called the pulmonary circuit  second system is the systemic circuit (all of the systems receive blood, excluding the lungs and the heart)  coronary circuit provides blood to the heart from itself  artery – away from the heart  vein – returning blood to
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