Anatomy lectures .docx

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Anatomy and Cell Biology
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Anatomy and Cell Biology 2221

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Introduction: basic cells and tissues Introduction to:  1. Systemic and functional anatomy  2. Basic cells and tissues Regional anatomy vs. systemic anatomy  Systemic: o Systemic involves just the system o There are 11 systems in the body o All of the systems are integrated  Regional anatomy: o Looks at all structures in a specific region Anatomical nomenclature  Anatomical language o Clear communication and consistency o Using anatomical directions, regions and landmarks  Medial: closer to the center of the body  Lateral: away from the midline of the body  The core body is the axial skeleton  Proximal: closer to the core of the body  Distal: farther away from the core of the body  Anterior: the front of the body  Posterior: the back of the body  Superior: is up (the head is superior to the shoulder)  Inferior: is down (the shoulder is inferior to the head)  ALWAYS REFER TO THE PATIENT (THERE RIGHT NOT YOUR OWN) The anatomical position  Standing straight with your palms facing out Planes of reference  Frontal or coronal plane: splits the body front and back  Sagittal: splits the body left and right (runs down the sagittal sutures)  Transverse: splits it up and down (top and bottom) (inferior and superior) Regions of the body  They are related to nomenclature, but are not clearly defined  Page three for diagrams of the regions in the body Body cavities  Protect vital organs  Help to regionally organize the human body  Dorsal cavities: near the back of the body  Ventral cavities: near the front of the body  Ventral body cavity: provides protection, separated by the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity  Thoracic Cavity: separated into the right pleural, mediastinum and the left pleural cavity, it also contains the pericardial cavity  Abdominopelvic Cavity: contains the peritoneal cavity. This includes the abdominal and pelvic cavity Body compartment  Separated by joints and fascia  Share the development origin  Share similar function and innervation  Share blood supply  They are enclosed by fascia (bundles of muscles) Body organization CHEMICAL LEVEL -> CELLULAR LEVEL -> TISSUE LEVEL -> ORGAN LEVEL -> SYSTEM LEVEL - > ORGANIZATOINAL LEVEL Atoms make cells:  Organelles with in the cells Cells make tissues:  Four types of tissue: o Nervous tissue o Connective tissue: the most abundant tissue found within the body o Epithelial tissue: make epithelial cells o Muscle tissue Basic tissue 1: Epithelia  Many types in the body o Classification uses a two name system  First name indicates the layering  Second name indicates shape  Layers o Simple= 1 layer  Meant to control diffusion across the cells (gases from the lungs into the blood) o Stratified= multilayers o Pseudostratified  Shape o Squamous: squashed, wider than they are tall, kind of look like scales o Cuboidal: cube, as wide as they are tall o Columnar: column, taller than they are wide  Examples: o Stratified squamous: the skin o Simple cuboidal: tubules of the kidney o Stratified cuboidal” seen in esophagus  Epithelia act like a boarder  Cells are closely opposed (cell junctions)  From surface linings and most glands (glandular epithelia cause secretion)  This tissue is avascular, but innervated (how you stimulate hormone secretion)  Cells are polarized (apical (toward the top) vs. basal (toward the bottom))  High regenerative capacity (very important)  The thicker the lining the better the barrier  Cilia are the long hairs on the cells while the microfilia are the shorter hairs in between o These hairs moves thing like the egg and mucus  The subcutaneous space just below the skin is where all the blood vessels are found Epithelia… how it works  Dead cells on the top of the skin are to far from the blood supply  Nucleus is not only found in the middle of the cell it is also toward the basal  Epithelial wall will not allow toxins through into the blood  will be absorbed into the cell Basic tissue 2: connective tissue  Most diverse and abundant tissue in the body  Provides structure and support o Gives you your unique features/identity  Surrounds, protects, connects structures such as blood vessels and nerves, as well as other tissues  Composed of cells and extracellular matrix (gives the integrity of the tissue, bone cells are found in the matrix)  Stores and carries nutrients  Connective tissue proper: loose (areolar, adipose, are reticular), dense (regular, irregular and elastic) connects structures together o Areolar loose CTP: most abundant in the subcutaneous space (just below the skin) referred to as packing tissue o Adipose loose CTP: just fat insulation found in the subcutaneous space o Reticular loose CTP: makes up most of organ tissue (stroma) o Regular dense CTP: organized connective tissue (ligaments) o Irregular dense CTP: not organized o Elastic: move elastic in nature (stretchy fiber) found in walls of arterioles  Specialized connective tissue o Cartilage: vascular, lacking innervation o Bone o Blood  Collagen fibers: the more there are the more dense  Fat mostly water, few fibers Basic tissues 2: connective-cartilage  Hyaline o Supports, reinforces o Resilient cushioning o Resists compressive stress and friction (flexible) o Has a lot of fluid o Found at growth plates can easily turn into bone  Elastic o More elastic than hyaline o Flexible but maintains shape o Epiglottis found by the larynx doesn’t allowed food in the wind pipe must be able to recoil  Fibro cartilage o Great tensile strength o Absorbs compressive shock (what discs are made of) o Oriented fibers o Most rigid type o Localized around where tremendous force is applied o Very rigid Basic tissue 2: connective-bone  Rock line compared to other tissues  Abundant collagen fibers resists tension  Contains inorganic calcium salts that form a incompressible matrix o This is what makes bone unique  Osteoblasts (immature bone) secrets collagen into matrix where ca2+ salts precipitate forming a hardening matrix  Osteocytes (mature bone) inhabit cavities (lacunae) within the hardening matrix  Bone is alive with rich capillary network  When calcium deficient it will turn back into hyaline cartilage  If you were to cook a bone all you would be left with is calcium salfts and the bone would be very brital  To bleed the calcium out of the bone soak it in acid and the you are left with a rubbery bone Basic tissue 2-blood  Termed connective tissue due to the embryonic origin… just like the other connective tissue: mesenchyme all connective tissue originates from this  Blood cells that are surrounded by nonliving matrix (the plasma)  Don’t forget lymph as well Basic tissues 3: muscle  Main cell line: o Muscle fibers of myocytes  Main function of muscle? o Other functions?  Three types of muscle tissue o Skeletal-movement, support – moves the skeleton  Under voluntary control o Cardiac- create blood pressure –moves blood  Under autonomic nervous system o Smooth –autonomic slave. From bowels to blood pressure  Involuntary, lines organs like intestines, control BP, not striated  Generates heat through movement Basic tissue 4: nervous  Main components of nervous organs o Brain, spinal cord, nerves  Neurons, highly specialized, generate conduct electrical impulses over a long distance  Longest cells in the body  Neuroglia are the supporting cells that nourish, insulate and protect the neurons (associated functions) clean up area, insulate, maintain signal for duration of length The Integumentary system Layer of the Skin  Epidermis: o Keratinized squamous epithelium (striated) o Keratinocytes (tough, carry, melanin granules) o Melanocytes (colour granules, UV, protection (cuboidal, mostly squamous) o Merkel cells (sensory) o Langerhans cell (macrophages)  5 LAYERS: o Basale (deep) (1) o Spinosum (spider) (8-10)  Mostly made of keratinocytes, protects basale, stratified squamous cells, all cells are attached o Graulosum (water proofing, last area of oxygenation, too far) – undergo programmed cell death, about 3-5 layers  When they die they release lipid filled sacs- make waterproofing layer o Lucidum (thick skin, dead) o Corneum (dead but horny (cornified) cells) this comes off your skin a lot – about 25-30 layers  It made of entirely of epithelial cells  Everyone has the same amount of melanocytes  Dermis o Connective tissue cells o Nerve fibers o Blood vessels o 2 layers:  Papillary 20%- not as strong  Allows diffusion of gases  Reticular 80%- has reticular fiber o Scaring is the dermis o Lots of vessels o As we age the connective tissue loosens o The blood when you scratch yourself is from the dermis o Wavelength: increase the SA between the dermis and the epidermis strengthens the connection  Facts: o Lose tan when melanon cells moves up the epidermis o Merkel cells: nervous cells)  Tactile cells o Basale cells: highly replicating  Hypodermis o Below the dermis, sometimes called the subcutaneous layer o Formed by the areolar and adipose tissue o Allows the movement of muscle tissue below o The sit of the subcutaneous FAT Skin Colour  Melanin:  Precursor: tyrosine o Ranges from yellow-red-brown-black o Freckles/moles are localized melanin o Theomelanin (yellow-red) o Umelanin (brown-black) o Vitiligo – no colour (white)  Carotene o Yellow-orange from veggies  Accumulates in stratum corneum and fat of hypodermis  Hemoglobin o O2 carrying part of the RBC o Where ever there are capillaries there is hemoglobin o Gives you the pinkish hue when you blush Skin Appendages  Hair o Dead keratinized cells secreted from the living hair follicle o Basale area very active produces the pigment  Sebaceous glands (grease) o Secrete sebum which protects and conditions the skin o Keeps hair oily giving it strength  Sweat glands o Secrete sweat (a blood filtrate), which is mostly water (99%) o Decreases heat  Nails o Scale like modification of the epidermis o The human equivalent to a hoof Burns  Causes rapid fluid loss and reduced blood flow  Infection risk is high  Classified y severity nd  2 degree- worry of infection  Damaged dermis causes edema (water loss)  H2O toward causes inflammatory response Cancer of Epithelia (carcinoma)  Fastest growing cancer in western hemisphere  Name of carcinoma refers to where abnormal cell growth occurs o Basale cell:  Is in the basale layer, overgrown, more common not melanocyte pushed toward top+die have removed o Squamous cell kytocytes in stratus spinosum  Similar to basale, away from the vascular supply  They die or you have them removed o Melanoma o Overgrowth of the melanocytes/ can spread –discoloration o If its more than 4 mm call a doctor, becomes ma
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