December Exam Review Notes 3

10 Pages

Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3309
Kem Rogers

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These are buried amongst the collagen fibrils They are sulfated and therefore, hold water o Glycoproteins and proteoglycans Link protein, fibronectin, aggrecan, laminin These are found in the territorial matrix The EC components of cartilage are essential to function o For example, upon damage, cells cannot start to re-synthesize type II collagen There are 3 main types of cartilage: o Hyaline It is transparent or nearly transparent and usually homogenous An example of this is articular cartilage, found at the end of bones o Elastic o Fibrocartilage Hyaline cartilage o The chondrocytes in isogenous groups are round o The matrix is 90% collagen type II o The non-fiber components include GAGs, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins CS > KS and HS This is because CS is large MW and therefore, can bind more water o The collagen fibers are hard to distinguish from non-fiber components There are 2 types of cartilage growth: o Interstitial growth Here, cells within the cartilage grow and divide This leads to synthesis of new cartilage matrix o Appositional growth This occurs from the perichondrium, where the cells from the edge of the cartilage differentiate into chondrocytes This leads to the deposition of new cartilage matrix upon the existing cartilage Appositional growth reduces as you age Articular cartilage (an example of hyaline cartilage) o This is responsible for getting rid of compression o There is no perichondrium and therefore, no source of cells that can repair the tissue if damaged o The chondrocytes do not undergo terminal differentiation to the hypertrophic stage There are 3 reasons that cartilage cant repair o There are no nerves Therefore, there is no indication of damage o There is no blood supply Therefore, there is no inflammation, which is the first step of wound repair o The cells are stuck in isogenous groups in the matrix Therefore, they cannot move Fibrocartilage o This usually forms when articular cartilage gets damaged o It can be found at the annulus fibrosus of intervertebral disks and ligaments/tendons (i.e. areas of mechanical stress) o It functions to disperse load, but NOT compressive forces o It contains mainly type I and type III collagen o The chondrocytes are arranged in columns between alternating layers of hyaline cartilage and dense type I collagen fibers oriented in the direction of stress The cells tend to be more singular o There is no perichondrium and so, the cartilage cannot grow after development Synovial joints contain synoviocytes, which secrete the nutrient rich synovial fluid o This fluid is lubricating and it supplies chondrocytes with nutrients o It is this fluid that calcifies during osteoarthritis o The synovial membrane could be loose, dense, or adipose connective tissue o The joint is stabilized by ligaments Non-synovial joints can contain: o Dense fibrous tissue o Hyaline cartilage o Fibrocartilage Elastic cartilage o This can be found in the external ear, auditory tubes, epiglottis, and the larynx o It is flexible but strong o The chondrocytes are round o There are type II collagen fibers, as well as elastic fibers These add flexibility and strength o The non-fiber components are the same as hyaline cartilage o There is surrounding perichondrium, and therefore, there is some level of repair Pathologies of cartilage o Chondrosarcoma This is cancer of the cartilage It is common in central portions of the skeleton (eg. Pelvis, shoulders, ribs) The prevalence is 2:1 = male:female There is a very distinct appearance vs. normal cartilage; we can see many cells per isogenous group It is not very metastatic due to the lack of vascularization in cartilage, however, it often invades into bone o Arthritis There are many forms This can be genetic There is a destruction of cartilage as a result of mechanical damage or inflammatory processes As a result of cartilage loss, there is bone grinding on bone Bone has many different roles in the body: o Provide architectural shape and support for organs and muscles o Provide protection for organs o Act as a storage site for minerals (eg. Calcium phosphate) PTH release can lead to osteoclast-mediated bone resorption This leads to calcium phosphate release, thereby increasing levels of calcium in the blood o Allows locomotion and movement The end of a long bone is known as the epiphysis o
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