Test 2 Complete Exam Notes - Oct 24-Dec 3.docx

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Western University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319

October 24VentriclesMeningesDescribe the location and function of the 3 meningeal layersDura Mater o Periosteal layer adheres to bone o Meningeal layer associated with meninges beneath it o Layers separate at dural venous sinusesArachnoid Mater o Arachnoid granulationsPia Mater o Denticulate ligament extensions of pia mater to anchor spinal cord to dura mater o Dural sac from L2L3 to S2contains cauda equina and filum terminalepia mater extensionMeningeal spaces o Epidural space potentialdeveloped if hemorrhageo Subdural space potentialdeveloped if hemorrhage o Subarachnoid space trueFilled with CSFLumbar puncturespinal tap in this space between L3L4 or L4L5 because no spinal cord here just cauda equinaCerebral arteriesCerebral veinsdrain into dural venous sinusesApply knowledge of the meninges to clinical cases involving hemorrhageMiddle meningeal artery travels through dura in grooves on lateral aspect of calvaria o Vulnerable to damage at pterion o Brief loss of consciousness followed by lucid interval o Drowsiness and coma due to compression of brainIntracranial hemorrhage o Subdural hematoma blow to headshearing forcetears cerebral veinsblood collects in subdural space o Subarachnoid hemorrhage ruptured aneurysm in cerebral arteryblood collects in subarachnoid space Explain the arrangement of the dural folds and dural venous sinusesDural folds separatesupport regions of brainsheetlike extensions of dura into the cranial cavity o Falx cerebrio Tentorium cerebellio Diaphragma sellae o Falx cerebelliDural venous sinuses endotheliallined valveless vessels within the dura mater o Receive blood from many veinsEmissary veins comes from external part of skullDiploic veins comes from boneCerebral veins comes from subarachnoid spaceVenous anastomoses face from face o Danger triangle blood can flow from face into brain so infection can flow into brain o 1 Superior sagittal sinus within fixed margin of falx cerebriReceives arachnoid granulations Turns right to form right 4 transverse sinus o 2 Inferior sagittal sinus within free margin of falx cerebriDrains into 3 Straight sinus which turns left to form left transverse sinus o Superior sagittal sinusstraight sinusconfluence of sinuses o 5 Sigmoid sinuses o 6 Cavernous sinuses o 7 Internal jugular veinsUnderstand the anatomical arrangement of the ventriclestheir interconnectionsNervous system originates from a hollow fluidfilled tube the neural tubeCells of tube wall proliferate differentiate forming cells of CNSEnclosed fluidfilled space the neural canal forms the ventricular spaces of the CNSCerebral hemispheresbilaterally paired Lateral VentriclesDiencephalonMidline Third VentricleMidbrainCerebral AqueductPons Medulla CerebellumFourth VentricleSpinal CordCentral Canal
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