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Midterm

Anatomy Midterm 2 - Lecture 3 .docx

24 Pages
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Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Professor
Michele Barbeau

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Description
Autonomic Nervous System ­ motor neurons going to skeletal muscle are somatic nervous system ­ ANS is visceral, unvoluntary movements ­ Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle are visceral (internal) organs ­ Regulates (increases and decreases) ­ Without conscious control  ­ somatic nervous system is a 1 neuron pathway o controls muscle  o acetylcholine  always excitatory  contracts it ­ autonomic nervous system is a 2 neuron pathway o presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron o cell body begins in brain stem or spinal cord o sends preganglionic axon through ventral root o goes through ventral ramus, synapses in autonomic ganglion with  postsynaptic neuron o autonomic ganglion is not the dorsal root ganglion o post synaptic neuron synapses with glands, cardiac muscle or smooth  muscle o acetylcholine or norepinephrine is receptor dependent effects (both  inhibitory and excitatory ­ sympathetic – flight or fight o stress, exercising ­ parasympathetic o conservation of energy o repair o opposing effects to sympathetic ­ every organ has dual innervation at all times o depends on what is dominant o have sympathetic innervation but also parasympathetic innervation at  same time o there are times where only one plays a role ­ two neuronal pathway ­ preganglionic originates in lateral grey horn o send out short fiber axons that synapse with sympathetic ganglion o synapse with postganglionic cell body that synapses with smooth or  cardiac muscle or gland ­ also called craniosacral division ­ neuronal cell bodies send long preganglionic neurons to post ganglionic cell  bodies that are really close to organ ­ opposing effects to SNS ­ both preganglionic neurons secrete ACh in SNS and PSNS o always activates postganglionic neuron ­ SNS postganglionic neuron secretes norepinephrine or epinephrine o Can be inhibitory or excitatory depending on organ/receptors ­ PSNS postganglionic neuron secretes ACh  ­ Exception: SNS secretes ACh to peripheral body structures (ie. Sweat  glands/blood vessels in skeletal muscle) ­ epinephrine ­ bronchodilation ­ anaphylactic shock o BP decreases, inflammation, SOB ­ Increases blood pressure, heart contracts faster ­ conserving energy ­ state of rest ­ craniosacral output of PSNS division ­ 4 cranial nerves in PSNS  o 3 of them important for structures in head o all start in brain stem o oculomotor sends preganglionic neuron, synapses in ganglion, post  synaptic innervates with eye and you get pupil constriction o facial nerve  sends axon to two ganglions  synapses with  • submandibular o salivary gland • pterygopalatine ganglion o producing tears o glossopharyngeal nerve  otic ganglion • innervates patorid gland o salivary gland ­ preganglionic cell bodies  ­ innervates structures in heart and lung ­ ­ originate in sacral (S2­S4) ­ sends preganglionic nerve which becomes sphlanchnic nerve (contents of 
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