Anatomy Midterm 3 - Lecture 10.docx

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Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Professor
Michele Barbeau
Semester
Winter

Description
­ listen to sounds in costal spaces (in between ribs) ­ systole – contraction ­ diastole – relaxation ­ when blood pushed out of great vessels, semilunar valves close ­ to best hear heart sounds ostalcation –hearing heart sounds ­ second intercostal space o manubriosternal angle o left hand side of sternum – pulmonary valve ­ aortic valve – right of sternum ­ AV valves th o Mitral/bicuspid – apex of heart (5  intercostal space) o Tricuspid valve – right side of sternum ­ valves have to close very tightly ­ aortic valve o 3 cusps o normally tightly close together o form little cups that can fill with blood on each side o functioning from fetal stage till death – wear and tear – can accumulate lipid and fibrous tissue  become less flexible   Stenosis – narrowing of opening • Ventricles would have to work harder to pump same amount of blood • If heart has to work harder, will get bigger, ventricular wall thickening – result of  disease  Incompetence – blood leaking back in • Decrease cardiac output • Decreased systemic circulation • Lightheadedness • Etc.  ­ ECG ­ Picks up electrical conductivity of heart ­ cardiac cycle ­ contraction of atria and ventricles ­ ventricular contraction – QRS SA node ­ bundle of specialized cells that depolarize easily ­ send out fibers throughout both atria that makes them contract simultaneously AV node  ­ stimulated as atria contract ­ sends signal through ventricular walls (bundle of his) ending in Purkinje fibers ­ rapidly transmit to all parts of ventricle ­ begins contraction at apex moving toward the base ­ cardiac muscle cells can beat on their own ­ but rate is controlled by outside forces ­ SNS increased HR ­ PSNS decreases HR – vagus nerve to both SA node and AV node ­ SNS goes from accelerator centre to spinal cord to sympathetic trunk, either goes to cervical or thoracic  ganglia o Going to cardiac plexus to SA node, AV node, and cardiac muscle which increases HR ­ 1. Ventricles wouldn’t contract properly o cardiac output problems o put an AV pacemaker in ­ 2.  Pulmonary valve – pulmonary incompetence  o swishing sound is from blood leaking back o not closing properly o need correcting ­ Transpositions of great vessels o Aorta attached to
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