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Midterm #2 - study Questions and Notes Weeks 8 - 12

Course Code
ANTH 1026F/G
Lisa Hodgetts
Study Guide

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6:28 PM
What physical traits characterized Homo heidelbergensis? What was their geographical and temporal
range? How did they differ from Homo erectus and from anatomically modern humans?
The physical traits of Homo heidelbergensis are:
-An increase in brain size (early Homo approximately 900 cc, heidelbergensis specimens approximately
-A shift from the widest part of the brain case from the cranial base to the parietal regions.
-The rear of the cranial vault becomes more vertical.
-A gradual reduction in cranial robusticity.
-A decline in postcranial robusticity also.
-A tendency for a shift from shorter more robust stature to taller more leaner bodies.
What do we know about the physical attributes and intellectual capabilities
of Neandertals? When and where did they live? How did they differ from
anatomically modern humans?
-had more pronounced versions of cranial features of H. heildelbergensis
-foreheads still sloped
-backs of their skulls broad
-brow ridges were still large but were more curved to the shape of the eyes as opposed of the straight
line that goes across the forehead
-face was large and prognathous
-broad nasal opening and wide-set eyes
-chin was receding
-bones were more robust and have heavier muscles markings than their modern counterparts
-short 5'6 - males; 5'3 - females
-larnyx of Neandratals was higher in throat than in modern humans
-elaboration of Levallois stone making technique to the Mousterian technique
+Mousterian: a tool-making tradition associated with the European Neathdertals; involved careful
retouching of flakes taken off cores
-the first to haft a stone point
+haft: to attach a wooden handle or shaft to a tone or bone point
-among the first to care for their elderly, ill and injured
-they did talk: the vocal tract of the Neandertals was like ours and that they could make all the sounds of
which we are capable
What tool technologies are associated with H. heidelbergensis and with
H. neanderthalensis? How do they differ from earlier tool traditions?
H. heidelbergensis:
+Acheulian: the too;-making tradition of Homo erectus, including hand axes, cleavers and flake tools
+hand axe: a bifacial, symmetrical, all-purpose tool first produced by H.erectus
+bifacial: a stone tool that has been worked on both sides

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+Movius line: a geographic break between the manufacture of hand axes and that of simple stone
chopping tools. Hand axes appear to the west of this line (Eastern India) but not often the east of it
H. neaderthalensis:
+Levallois: a tool-technology involving striking uniform from a prepared one
+Mousterian: a toolmaking tradition associated with the European Neadertals
+haft: to attach a wooden handle or shaft to a stone or bone point
+Homo antecessor: a newly proposed species from Spain dated at 780 000 ya or more. The fossils show
a mix of primitive and modern features and are interpreted by their discoveries as possibly ancestral to
H. heidelbergensis and H. heidelbergensis
+encephalization: is defined as the amount of brain mass exceeding that related to an animal's total
body mass.
+post-orbital constriction:
is a narrowing of the cranium (skull) just behind the eye sockets (the orbits, hence the name), in
primates including primitive hominids.
+Marcellin Boule:
He studied and published the first analysis of a complete Homo neanderthalensis. The fossil discovered
in La Chapelle-aux-Saints was an old man, and Boule characterized it as brutish, bent kneed and not a
fully erect biped
+Lower Palaeolithic:
+Middle Palaeolithic:
+Homo floresiensis: a proposed new species from the Indonesian island of florence, dated as recently as
13 000 ya and characterized by a dimunitive body size (3'5) and small brain. H. florensis Is however,
associated with stone tools, hunting and fire
+Lower Pleistocene: term used to label the earliest period of hominid tool-making in Africa, Europe and
Asia; dates to as much as 2.5 mya (in Africa) to about 250 000 ya throughout the Old World
+Middle Pleistocene: part of the Pleistocene from 780 000 to 200 000 ya
+Upper Pleistocene: part of the Pleistocene from 200 000 to 10 000 ya
12:01 AM
What anatomical traits characterize anatomically modern humans (Homo
sapiens )? When and where did they emerge?
-300 000 ya
-appear earliest in Africa; later in southwest Asia, Europe and eat Asia
-migrated to Australia, islands of the Pacific and north and South America
+Homo sapiens: the taxonomic name for modern and some premodern humans. There is some debate
as to whether or not this name cover certain fossil forms

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-modern human face is essentially flat
-no heavy brow ridges
-skull is globular rather than elongated
-forehead is nearly vertical
-smaller, narrower face
-protruding chin
-post cranial skeleton is less robust
What are the competing models to explain the evolution of anatomically
modern humans? What evidence is used to support each model? Do you
think one of the models provides a better explanation than the others?
The Recent African Origin Model
-Homo sapiens is separate species that branched from a pre-existing archaic Homo species in Africa
around 200 000 to 150 000ya.
-spread over the Old World, replacing archaic populations when they came in contact presumably
because H. sapiens was a better adapted species
-there must be an anatomical definition of modernity (there must be traits that all H. sapiens share that
are not found in premoderns and traits found in premoderns that are all lacking in modern humans
-must find a genetic distinction of a degree that would indicate separate species
Support for the RAO model:
-form transitional between archaic species and H. sapiens are found only in Africa
The Multiregional Evolution Model:
-Wolpoff and Caspari
-arose in Africa 2my earlier than the RAO model
-spread throughout the Old World, evolving genetic and phenotypic regional differences in response to
the wide variety of environmental circumstances they encountered and the complex population
movements, isolations, mergings, and fissionings that must have taken place
-there is no clear evidence that modern H. sapiens is a separate species from any of the so-called
premodern groups (no definition of modernity)
-there should be a regional continuity of traits
Support for the MRE model:
-the variation seen within the fossil record of Homo does not warrant division separate species
-H. sapiens and H. erectus are the same species
-modern traits did not at all arise in one location but in many and that they spread throughout the
species through gene flow to be expressed differently in different geographic locations
-there is sufficient variation among modern humans that modernity as no general definition includes all
clearly modern humans and excludes all other proposed species
What cultural changes took place among anatomically modern humans
(Homo sapiens) during the Upper Palaeolithic and Late Stone Age?
-the artifacts recovered show a more sophisticated technology than contemporary tool assemblages in
Europe and Asia
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