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Anthropology 2100 Study Guide - Winter 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - World Heritage Site, Vulture, Upper Mesopotamia


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 2100
Professor
Peter Timmins
Study Guide
Final

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ANTH 2100

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The idea of “World Heritage” and the UNESCO World Heritage
convention
The World Heritage Convention
What makes the concept of the world heritage exceptional is its universal application.
World Heritage sites belong to all the peoples of the world, irrespective of the territory
on which they are located
o Inheritance or legacy passed on is at the root of the movement
The roots of the world heritage convention
The international movement that became the world heritage convention developed
after WW1 and represented a merging of two separate causes
o The conservation of nature and pristine natural environments
o The preservation of cultural heritage sites and monuments
Came from USA
o Example
Created widespread surge
Building of the Abu Simbel temple flooded
In response to this crisis UNESCO started a campaign in the area
(20 years) parts of the Egyptian sites were dismantled and moved
to higher ground
Originally built by being carved out of the hillside so moving it
meant cutting it into 16 thousand blocks
Orginal temple was organized in a specific way so the sun would
shine on a statue in the temple of Ramsy the Second
o Was rebuilt in the same way when moved
Temple of Isis
On island in the Nile
Mostly submerged when the rescue began
1st had to build a dam then had to pump water out
Measured and then dissected
Blocks moved to another island and reassembled with milimetere
accuracy
Was 680 million dollars at the time
o campaign demonstrated that major international support could be brought
together to safeguard thing
a 1965 conference in Washington called for World Heritage trust that would protect the
worlds most scenic natural areas and imprtoant historic sites
the convention concerning the protection of World cultural and Natural heritage was
adopted by UNESCO in 1972
the convention established a World Heritage committee to identify, protect and
conserve the worlds heritage and a World heritage fund to be used to help protect and
persevere threatened sites
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The criteria
all world heritage sites are supposed to meet a standard of being “of outstanding
universal value”
assumes the existence of universal values related to cultural and natural heritage and
that all people agree upon them
ten criteria established the first five are more applicable to cultural heritage sites
o to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius
Grotte Chauvet in France
Contains the first known expressions of human artistic genius and
more than 1,000 drawings of anthropomorphic and zoomorphic
motifs of exceptional aesthetic quality
Earliest paliolithic sites
o To exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or
within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or
technology, monumental arts, town planning or landscape design
The archaeological site of Troy, in Turkey, documents relationships
between Anatolia, the Aegean and the Balkans, given its location at a
point where those three cultures met
3000 years and many successful civilizations
Written about by Homer
Famed archeologists where a treasure board was discovered
o To bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a
civilization which is living or which has disappeared
The Cahokia mounds state historic site in Illinois the largest pre-
Columbian archeologists site north of Mexico and a cultural, religious and
economic center of the prehistoric Mississippian cultural tradition
o To be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or
technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates a significant stage in
human history
The Ngorongoro Conservation Area in Tansania a mixed cultural and
natural site that ahs yielded hominin fossils representing several stages in
human evolutionary history
Natural space - savana, forests, woodlands, drylands
Cultural large sequence of human evolution
Includes a gorge
o Years of research revealing several hominin species
The World Heritage Convention
The convention aims at the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and
transmission to future generations of cultural and natural heritage of Outstanding
Universal value
o Therefore worthy of protection
Properties that face serious, specific threats are placed on a lsit of world heritage in
danger
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