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Linguistic Anthropology Notes 2012.docx

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Anthropology 1020E
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1020E Linguistic Anthropology 2012Entire Terms NotesMain Ideas1Language is unique to humans2Language has developed alone with evolution as a species3Language is essential to out development of knowledge technology society and survival Communication vs Language ex The dance of the honeybee p8991 All animals use communicationIt is very limited Only humans have language Design features of language p101105 Vocalauditory channelcan just talk while other things would disadvantage this move Duality of patterning Putting sounds together to get words with meanings Finite number of meaningless sounds gives way to an infinite number of wordsmeanings Productivity Displacementnot in our immediate context Past possibilities memories future not real Reflexivenesscan talk about out own language with our language Human characteristics related to evolution of language 23 million years ago Bipedalism Use of tools Brain size increased Performance for vocalauditory channel 5000070000 years ago Duality of patterning Invention of symbols Productivity can talk about anything Syntax sentence structurePolygenesis merging different ways of languages at different times Mark PagelHow has language transformed society video319 Human capacity for social learning gave us an advantage over other species Language evolved us to solve the crisis of visual theft Language is a piece of social technology for enhancing the benefits of cooperation What is unique about human language Not all language is verbal or oral Human language uses a combination of verbal and nonverbal communication Gestures 1020E Linguistic Anthropology 2012 Posture Facial expressions Nonverbal types Human communicative gestures that are independent of culture and language universalNot learned havent been socialized yet Scream cry and cough Gestures and vocalizations that are culturally and linguistically variable Learned and quotable VerbalParalanguage goes around the languagemodificationhow you say it Volume Pitch Speed Tone of voice Voice quality breathy strong bold weakCombining verbal and nonverbal communication Lying and lie detectorhow can you tell Paul Ekman studies micro expressionsIf nonverbal and verbal communications do not matchlyingLanguage AcquisitionMain ideas1Humans are the only species to acquire language2All healthynormal humans acquire at least one language effortlesslySign Languages Who uses sign language Deaf and impaired and those that want to talk to them Chimps People in loud places Sign languages are full languages with the same design features of oral language Hand shape direction positions movementwords Has its own type of grammar Change over time Varies by age and place Facial expressions are crucialLanguage How do humans learn to speak Is language acquisition innate or dependant on the social environment What are the connections between cognitive ability and linguistic ability What does it mean to know a languageRecall Washoe the chimp with sign language and Genie the wild child Connection between cognitive and linguistic ability
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