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Anthropology 1025F/G Final Exam Prep notes

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Anthropology 1025F/G
Terry Webb

1. Discuss how rituals, taboos, and fetishes are used to manage the anxiety generated by unpredictable events that challenge human control. Include a discussion of articles from Unit 8 in Conformity and Conflict. - - - haviland - - - -rituals reduce anxiety and uncertainty -magic --> human attempts to change cause and effect irrationally -lifecycle rituals --> change in status from one stage to another -rites of passage (1. how does this help?) -pilgrimages -remove further from everyday life --> more transformative - - - NatGeo vids - - - -Apache girls rite of passage – run and circle baskets of pollen and other ... dance around ceremonial fire, --> live as woman of tribe (1) -Kayan tribewomen - body mod., brass collar weighs down shoulders, exposed female neck is oddity, happens during child birth, dr's checkups, after committing adultery -Tribesmen -becoming man, (before treated and referred to as wives), cut all over body, takes weeks, humiliation to remind them of their place (1) -Benin -voodoo from animism, communicate with God via spirits -girl becomes medium bc she can’t learn in school - - - freed and freed - - - -relationship between religion and anxieties caused by stressful, unmanageable aspects of life -Sita (of low caste) married, had many new stresses -ghost possession relieved her of some of her duties, support from both sides of family, permission to visit her father - - - gmlech - - - -manage unpredictable events and anxiety via rituals, taboos, fetishes -fielding (baseball) has low degree of chance, therefore no ritual -Detroit Tigers pitcher rituals before each game and after each inning -uncertainty of hitting and pitching ---> rituals for the baseball gods -develop routine --> comfort from creating order with little control -routine becomes ritual (no empirical reasoning of routine) --> not rational -number of warm up swings, kissing pendant, chewing same gum, eating chicken before each game, etc -Trobriand Islanders fishing rituals when on open sea vs protected lagoon -dangerous open seas --> charms, rituals, taboos -rituals grow from exceptional performance (skill level isn't changing, therefore...) -taboos from undesirable results, misfortune -never step on chalk foul lines, have sex before performance, shave, etc -built on childhood superstition (step on crack...) -fetishes are charms with supernatural power -chains, coins, crosses, favourite clothes, numbers -clothing choice and order are ritual and fetish -psychologist Skinner + pigeons -reward pigeons at timed intervals and they associate behaviour with reward 3. The scars of bondage thesis argues that the more complete the political domination and exploitation of a people, the more deeply they will be scarred by the experience. Please discuss, including examples from the Unit 9 readings in Spradley and McCurdy, and your course notes and text book. (NOTE: this thesis is not mentioned in your course materials.) - - - guneratne and bjork - - - tharu people in nepal -effect of tourists on 'primitive' tharu locals -higher cast nepalese acted as tour guides, describing the backward tharu ways -were left alone before 1950 bc of malaria in forest -tourists entered kitchen of dead tharu landowner (village walk) -tour guides (higher cast) insensitive to tharu manners --> ignorant or contemptuous -tharu feel the tourists are made out to be jangali (backward) -meaningful art created for tourists instead of religion or ritual -tharu culture museum built bc of youth club --> became focus of village walk -caused by tourists and the unflattering view -museum tells story tharu wanted it told --> found identity by asserting it with other nepalese ethnic groups - - - shandy - - - nuer in southern sudan -persecuted by sudanese in north --> immigrate to US -work unskilled factory jobs -try to maintain their ethnic id --> transnationalism (retaining strong ties with homeland) -marry woman from south sudan and bring her to US - - - enhrenreich - - - nannies, sex workers, maids (Philippines, Sri Lanka, India) -women in impoverished countries have to choose been living poor with their children or working in a developed country without their children and sending money homeland -career women in developed countries give up care of their children/parents to foreign workers -'worldwide gender revolution' --> liberation (sort of) -sometimes passports stolen --> sex trade -hidden indoor without support (unlike other immigrants who work in factories together, etc) -nannies takes the 'wife's' trad role (child rearing, cleaning, sex) -women invest what should go into their own children into someone else's --> 'Philippine divorce' -'care deficit' -men from developing country feel demoralized --> can't contribute --> squander 5. Gender stratification still exists in Canada. Provide some examples of gender stratification that you have witnessed or experienced in Canadian society. Stratification= division of society into groups that do not share equal wealth, power, prestige. May be based on age, gender, class, race, etc. -division of labour (hunting vs farming) -inheritance and descent -politics (Iroq. Women) veto power -leadership (Iroq. Men) outside households -prestige (Iroq, Men) masculine activities more prestigous -'separate but equal' like Iroquois -sleeping and eating quarters (Mundurucu Men) separation -association (Mund Men with Mund Men) -control by force -status of submission (Mund Women) -political and religious (Mund Men) positions -economics (Mund Women) autonomous -sexual (Canadian women) assaulted every 6 mins, 1/4 assaulted in life -high unemployment rate and lower wage (foreign women in Canada) [McElhinny] -told to have no trad dress, no children at interviews, -immigration (Filipina) females as care-givers -sex harassment, overtime, no legal protection -soc and pol positions -econ importance -value of workplace -right to control bodies (ex birth control) -two major factors: econ and war -control of prod strategies -control of resources (distribution) ...therefore division of labour matters (domestic duties vs outside duties.) -providing meat, income -2003 women received 71% earning as similar men -men (Yanomami) bring aggression from war to home -sons are future warriors -women bargered foreigners -purdah (muslim female seclusion) -protection from sex advances, prying eyes -publicly never alone -modesty -Canadians okay to be half naked on street but take issue with head scarf 6. Why is it important for anthropologists to study art in a culture? Include a discussion of the information presented by the guest speaker. - - - - haviland - - - - -art reflects cultural values and concerns -esp verbal arts (ex myths, stories) --> history -myths, songs --> orderly behaviour, customs, values -vis arts --> interpreted history, preserving crafts -pride in cultures -body art -insights to world view -protect Canadian culture from strong US influence -art expresses like language -reflects and shapes social structure --> uniqueness -symbolic representation --> religious -contributes to wellbeing --> gives significance to life -forms of propaganda -studying art means studying the artist verbal arts -myths (rationale for relig beliefs and practices) -ex creation myth explains explains beginning -legends (pseudo history) --> entertain, instruct, unify, inspire -explains why behaviours are brave or cowardly, etiquette -tales (secular non-history) --> entertain, moral -basic motif, common people (father and son) music -ethnomusicology (study of music in cultural setting) -transmits emotions, not ideas -spiritual significance -ex shamans used drums to sing to spirits -self identification (counter larger culture) -gain attention for m
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